Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4623-4637; doi:10.3390/ijms10114623

Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions

1 Observatoire du Milieu Marin Martiniquais, 3 avenue Condorcet, 97 200 Fort de France, Martinique, FWI, France 2 School of Biological Sciences, King Henry Building, Portsmouth University, Portsmouth PO1 2DY, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2009; Accepted: 26 October 2009 / Published: 27 October 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Antifouling)
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Abstract: Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF) strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into the formulations are becoming more and more strict. It is also recognised that vessels play an extensive role in invasive species propagation as ballast waters transport potentially threatening larvae. It is then crucial to develop new AF solutions combining advances in marine chemistry and topography, in addition to a knowledge of marine biofoulers, with respect to the marine environment. This review presents the recent research progress made in the field of new non-toxic AF solutions (new microtexturing of surfaces, foul-release coatings, and with a special emphasis on marine natural antifoulants) as well as the perspectives for future research directions.
Keywords: coatings; marine natural products; green antifouling; environment; toxicity

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MDPI and ACS Style

Maréchal, J.-P.; Hellio, C. Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 4623-4637.

AMA Style

Maréchal J-P, Hellio C. Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(11):4623-4637.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maréchal, Jean-Philippe; Hellio, Claire. 2009. "Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 11: 4623-4637.

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