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Mycoflora and Co-Occurrence of Fumonisins and Aflatoxins in Freshly Harvested Corn in Different Regions of Brazil
Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Department of Food Engineering, School of Animal Science and Food Engineering, University of São Paulo, Pirassununga, SP, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2009; in revised form: 5 November 2009 / Accepted: 12 November 2009 / Published: 24 November 2009
Abstract: Natural mycoflora and co-occurrence of fumonisins (FB1, FB2) and aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) in freshly harvested corn grain samples from four regions of Brazil were investigated. Fusarium verticillioides was predominant in all samples. Analysis of fumonisins showed that 98% of the samples were contaminated with FB1 and 74.5% with FB1 + FB2, with toxin levels ranging from 0.015 to 9.67 μg/g for FB1 and from 0.015 to 3.16 μg/g for FB2. Twenty-one (10.5%) samples were contaminated with AFB1, seven (3.5%) with AFB2 and only one (0.5%) with AFG1 and AFG2. Co-contamination with aflatoxins and fumonisins was observed in 7% of the samples. The highest contamination of fumonisins and aflatoxins was observed in Nova Odessa (SP) and Várzea Grande (MT), respectively. The lowest contamination of these mycotoxins was found in Várzea Grande and Nova Odessa, respectively.
Keywords: fumonisins; aflatoxins; corn (Zea mays L.); mycotoxins; mycoflora; Fusarium verticillioides; Aspergillus flavus
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Rocha, L.O.; Nakai, V.K.; Braghini, R.; Reis, T.A.; Kobashigawa, E.; Corrêa, B. Mycoflora and Co-Occurrence of Fumonisins and Aflatoxins in Freshly Harvested Corn in Different Regions of Brazil. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 5090-5103.
Rocha LO, Nakai VK, Braghini R, Reis TA, Kobashigawa E, Corrêa B. Mycoflora and Co-Occurrence of Fumonisins and Aflatoxins in Freshly Harvested Corn in Different Regions of Brazil. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(11):5090-5103.
Rocha, Liliana O.; Nakai, Viviane K.; Braghini, Raquel; Reis, Tatiana A.; Kobashigawa, Estela; Corrêa, Benedito. 2009. "Mycoflora and Co-Occurrence of Fumonisins and Aflatoxins in Freshly Harvested Corn in Different Regions of Brazil." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 11: 5090-5103.