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Special Issue "Green Antifouling"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2008)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Claire Hellio

President of ESMB; Head of a bioprospection corefacility (Biodimar) at the University of Brest; Course leader for a master in Biotechnology at the University of Brest, Brest, France
E-Mail
Fax: +44 239 284 2070
Interests: new non-toxic antifouling solutions; new biocides; marine natural products; ethnobotany; marine biochemistry

Special Issue Information

Fouling refers to the accumulation and deposition of living organisms (biofouling) and certain non-living material on hard surfaces, most often in an aquatic environment. The International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships will prohibit the use of harmful organotins in anti-fouling paints used on ships and will establish a mechanism to prevent the potential future use of other harmful substances in anti-fouling systems. We would like to run this special issue to promote the research and development of new anti-fouling agents and methods.

Some Leading Papers and Reviews

  • Chambers, L.D.; Stokes, K.R.; Walsh, F.C.; Wood, R.J.K. Modern approaches to marine antifouling coatings. Surf. Coat. Technol. 2006, 201, 3642-3652.
  • Dobretsov, S.; Dahms, H.U.; Qian, P.Y. Inhibition of biofouling by marine microorganisms and their metabolites. Biofouling 2006, 22, 43-54.
  • Clare, A.S. Towards nontoxic antifouling. J. Marine Biotech. 1998, 6, 3-6.
  • Yebra, D.M.; Kiil, S.; Dam-Johansen, K. Antifouling technology - past, present and future steps towards efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling coatings. Prog. Org. Coat. 2004, 50, 75-104.

Keywords

  • antifouling agents (antiscaling agents)
  • marine antifouling
  • fouling
  • inhibition
  • attachment
  • adhesion
  • natural products and the extracts

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Various Metallic Coatings on Steel to Mitigate Biofilm Formation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(2), 559-571; doi:10.3390/ijms10020559
Received: 31 December 2008 / Revised: 25 January 2009 / Accepted: 2 February 2009 / Published: 12 February 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In marine environments and water systems, it is easy for many structures to form biofilms on their surfaces and to be deteriorated due to the corrosion caused by biofilm formation by bacteria. The authors have investigated the antibacterial effects of metallic elements in
[...] Read more.
In marine environments and water systems, it is easy for many structures to form biofilms on their surfaces and to be deteriorated due to the corrosion caused by biofilm formation by bacteria. The authors have investigated the antibacterial effects of metallic elements in practical steels so far to solve food-related problems, using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. However, from the viewpoint of material deterioration caused by bacteria and their antifouling measures, we should consider the biofilm behavior as aggregate rather than individual bacterium. Therefore, we picked up Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudoalteromonas carageenovara in this study, since they easily form biofilms in estuarine and marine environments. We investigated what kind of metallic elements could inhibit the biofilm formation at first and then discussed how the thin films of those inhibitory elements on steels could affect biofilm formation. The information would lead to the establishment of effective antifouling measures against corrosion in estuarine and marine environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Antifouling)
Open AccessArticle Accelerator Analysis of Tributyltin Adsorbed onto the Surface of a Tributyltin Resistant Marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. Cell
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(10), 1989-2002; doi:10.3390/ijms9101989
Received: 28 August 2008 / Revised: 16 October 2008 / Accepted: 20 October 2008 / Published: 24 October 2008
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tributyltin (TBT) released into seawater from ship hulls is a stable marine pollutant and obviously remains in marine environments. We isolated a TBT resistant marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. TBT1 from sediment of a ship’s ballast water. The isolate (109.3 ± 0.2 colony-forming units
[...] Read more.
Tributyltin (TBT) released into seawater from ship hulls is a stable marine pollutant and obviously remains in marine environments. We isolated a TBT resistant marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. TBT1 from sediment of a ship’s ballast water. The isolate (109.3 ± 0.2 colony-forming units mL-1) adsorbed TBT in proportion to the concentrations of TBTCl externally added up to 3 mM, where the number of TBT adsorbed by a single cell was estimated to be 108.2. The value was reduced to about one-fifth when the lysozyme-treated cells were used. The surface of ethanol treated cells became rough, but the capacity of TBT adsorption was the same as that for native cells. These results indicate that the function of the cell surface, rather than that structure, plays an important role to the adsorption of TBT. The adsorption state of TBT seems to be multi-layer when the number of more than 106.8 TBT molecules is adsorbed by a single cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Antifouling)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Ion-Molecule Reactions and Chemical Composition of Emanated from Herculane Spa Geothermal Sources
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(6), 1024-1033; doi:10.3390/ijms9061024
Received: 3 May 2008 / Revised: 3 June 2008 / Accepted: 4 June 2008 / Published: 20 June 2008
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper presents a chemical composition analysis of the gases emanated from geothermal sources in the Herculane Spa area (Romania). The upper homologues of methane have been identified in these gases. An ion-molecule reaction mechanism could be implicated in the formation of the
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The paper presents a chemical composition analysis of the gases emanated from geothermal sources in the Herculane Spa area (Romania). The upper homologues of methane have been identified in these gases. An ion-molecule reaction mechanism could be implicated in the formation of the upper homologues of methane. The CH4+ ions that appear under the action of radiation are the starting point of these reactions. The presence of hydrogen in the emanated gases may be also a result of these reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Antifouling)
Open AccessArticle A Model to Predict Total Chlorine Residue in the Cooling Seawater of a Power Plant Using Iodine Colorimetric Method
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(4), 542-553; doi:10.3390/ijms9040542
Received: 31 January 2008 / Revised: 25 February 2008 / Accepted: 1 April 2008 / Published: 4 April 2008
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (375 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A model experiment monitoring the fate of total residue oxidant (TRO) in water at a constant temperature and salinity indicated that it decayed exponentially with time, and with TRO decaying faster in seawater than in distilled water. The reduction of TRO by temperature
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A model experiment monitoring the fate of total residue oxidant (TRO) in water at a constant temperature and salinity indicated that it decayed exponentially with time, and with TRO decaying faster in seawater than in distilled water. The reduction of TRO by temperature (°K) was found to fit a curvilinear relationship in distilled water (r2 = 0.997) and a linear relationship in seawater (r2 = 0.996). Based on the decay rate, flow rate, and the length of cooling water flowing through at a given temperature, the TRO level in the cooling water of a power plant could be estimated using the equation developed in this study. This predictive model would provide a benchmark for power plant operators to adjust the addition of chlorine to levels necessary to control bio-fouling of cooling water intake pipelines, but without irritating ambient marine organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Antifouling)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Core-Shell Acrylate Based Latex and Study of Its Reactive Blends
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(3), 342-354; doi:10.3390/ijms9030342
Received: 18 December 2007 / Revised: 17 February 2008 / Accepted: 3 March 2008 / Published: 12 March 2008
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported.
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Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as monomers and ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite redox system as the initiator. Two stages seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization were employed for constructing a core-shell structure with P(MMA-co-BA) component as the core and P(EHA-co-GMA) component as the shell. Results of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamics Light Scattering (DLS) tests confirmed that the particles obtained are indeed possessing a desired core-shell structural character. Stable reactive latex blends were prepared by adding the latex with waterborne melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) or urea-formaldehyde resin (UF). It was found that the glass transition temperature, the mechanical strength and the hygroscopic property of films cast from the latex blends present marked enhancements under higher thermal treatment temperature. It was revealed that the physical properties of chemically reactive latexes with core-shell structure could be altered via the change of crosslinking density both from the addition of crosslinkers and the thermal treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Antifouling)

Review

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Open AccessReview Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4623-4637; doi:10.3390/ijms10114623
Received: 8 October 2009 / Accepted: 26 October 2009 / Published: 27 October 2009
Cited by 68 | PDF Full-text (224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF) strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into the
[...] Read more.
Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF) strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into the formulations are becoming more and more strict. It is also recognised that vessels play an extensive role in invasive species propagation as ballast waters transport potentially threatening larvae. It is then crucial to develop new AF solutions combining advances in marine chemistry and topography, in addition to a knowledge of marine biofoulers, with respect to the marine environment. This review presents the recent research progress made in the field of new non-toxic AF solutions (new microtexturing of surfaces, foul-release coatings, and with a special emphasis on marine natural antifoulants) as well as the perspectives for future research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Antifouling)

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