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Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082062

UPLC-QTOF/MS-Based Metabolomics Applied for the Quality Evaluation of Four Processed Panax ginseng Products

1
Department of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, RDA, Eumseong 27709, Korea
2
Department of Oriental Medicine Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea
3
Institute of JinAn Red Ginseng, JinAn 55442, Korea
4
Department of Horticultural Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology for Natural Products Research)
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Abstract

In the food industry and herbal markets, it is critical to control the quality of processed Panax ginseng products. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS)-based metabolomics was applied for the quality evaluation of white ginseng (WG), tae-geuk ginseng (TG), red ginseng (RG), and black ginseng (BG). Diverse metabolites including ginsenosides were profiled by UPLC-QTOF/MS, and the datasets of WG, TG, RG, and BG were then subjected to multivariate analyses. In principal component analysis (PCA), four processed ginseng products were well-differentiated, and several ginsenosides were identified as major components of each product. S-plot also characterized the metabolic changes between two processed ginseng products, and the major ginsenosides of each product were found as follows: WG (M-Rb1, M-Rb2, M-Rc, Re, Rg1), TG (Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg1), RG (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg1), and BG (Rd, Rk1, Rg5, Rg3). Furthermore, the quantitative contents of ginsenosides were evaluated from the four processed ginseng products. Finally, it was indicated that the proposed metabolomics approach was useful for the quality evaluation and control of processed ginseng products. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolomics; UPLC-QTOF/MS; Panax ginseng; processed products; ginsenosides metabolomics; UPLC-QTOF/MS; Panax ginseng; processed products; ginsenosides
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Lee, J.W.; Ji, S.-H.; Choi, B.-R.; Choi, D.J.; Lee, Y.-G.; Kim, H.-G.; Kim, G.-S.; Kim, K.; Lee, Y.-H.; Baek, N.-I.; Lee, D.Y. UPLC-QTOF/MS-Based Metabolomics Applied for the Quality Evaluation of Four Processed Panax ginseng Products. Molecules 2018, 23, 2062.

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