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Special Issue "Water Recycling and Reuse"

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A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2011)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Andreas N. Angelakis

1 National Foundation for Agricultural Research (N.AG.RE.F.), Institute of Iraklio, 71110 Iraklio, Greece
2 Hellenic Union of Municipal Enterprises for Water Supply and Sewerage (EDEYA), 41222 Larissa, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +30 2810245873
Interests: Water resources; Environmental engineering; Wastewater treatment; Aquatic wastewater management systems; Water and wastewater management for small and decentralized systems; Water and wastewater quality; Treated wastewater renovation and reuse; and Water and wastewater technologies in ancient civilizations
Guest Editor
Dr. Nikos Paranychianakis

Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania, Greece
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Managing water is a global challenge that impacts the environmental, social, economic and political cornerstones of our existence on Earth. Effluent reclamation and reuse provides opportunities to conserve water and maintain the quality of the existing fresh water supplies. Water reuse for various purposes is increasingly practiced throughout the world particularly in arid environments. It is meant to help close the anthropogenic water cycle and enable sustainable reuse of available water resources. When integrated to water resources management, it can be considered as an integral part of pollution control and water management strategies. It may also result in benefits to public health, the environment, and economic development.

The main objective of this special issue is to illustrate the benefits of water reuse in integrated water resources management and its role for water cycle management, water scarcity, climate change adaptation, and water in the cities of the future. Selected for publication papers will show the state of art of the different types of water reuse, e.g. agricultural irrigation, golf course and landscape irrigation and other urban and industrial uses, environmental enhancement, groundwater recharge, as well as indirect and direct potable reuse. In addition papers will cover various aspects related to water reuse, including treatment technologies, water quality, regulations, economics, public acceptance, risk assessment, benefits, keys for success and main constraints.

The purpose of this special issue is to promote importance, success, problems, constrains, challenges, and perspectives of water recycling and reuse worldwide as well as to demonstrate that all the water is reused and that planned water reuse is a cost competitive and energy saving option to increase water availability and reliability. It is a proven water scarcity solution to mitigate climate change by increasing water availability. The presentation of selected paper from all over the world will present the state of art on planning, designing and operation of water reuse projects including safety, sustainability, economical viability, and social benefits.

Therefore, we would like to call for submission of manuscripts to disseminate and share findings on water recycling and reuse issues. Publishable papers will be selected by a rigorous peer review procedure with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of research results, development and application.

Original research or review manuscripts are invited in the following and related areas:

  • Water reuse planning, policy, monitoring requirements, and standards/criteria.
  • The role of water reuse for integrated water resources management.
  • Wastewater treatment technologies.
  • On-site and decentralized wastewater treatment systems.
  • Removal of trace organics and emerging contaminants.
  • Disinfection technologies.
  • Historical development of water reuse.
  • Agricultural and irrigation.
  • Landscape irrigation and other urban uses.
  • Industrial uses.
  • Environmental and recreational uses.
  • Groundwater recharge.
  • (In)direct potable reuse.
  • Water reuse and future cities.
  • Effluent disposal to waterways.
  • Economic and social aspects of production and use of recycled water.
  • Health and ecological risk analysis in water recycling applications.
  • Other related research issues.

Dr. N. V. Paranychianakis
Dr. A. N. Angelakis
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • wastewater reclamation
  • wastewater treatment
  • onsite treatment
  • disinfection
  • history of water reuse
  • water recycling
  • wastewater reuse
  • nonpotable reuse
  • potable uses
  • effluent disposal
  • applications of recycled water
  • effluent reuse criteria
  • risk assessment
  • water pollution control

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Golf Course Irrigation with Reclaimed Water in the Mediterranean: A Risk Management Matter
Water 2012, 4(2), 389-429; doi:10.3390/w4020389
Received: 27 February 2012 / Revised: 26 March 2012 / Accepted: 26 March 2012 / Published: 11 April 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Controversy regarding the amount of water consumed or saved as a result of human activity is currently paramount in water-scarce areas. In recent decades, golf—a land and water consuming activity—has been implanted in several areas of the Mediterranean basin, where the scarcity of
[...] Read more.
Controversy regarding the amount of water consumed or saved as a result of human activity is currently paramount in water-scarce areas. In recent decades, golf—a land and water consuming activity—has been implanted in several areas of the Mediterranean basin, where the scarcity of water resources is well-known. As a result, the use of conventional water resources for golf course irrigation is increasingly contested and its replacement by reclaimed water has become essential. This paper examines the wide range of issues involved in its use on golf courses, including hazards—due to the presence of microorganisms and pollutants—and the corresponding risks that can appear. The resulting biological, chemical and physical water quality concerns are analyzed. Legal aspects related to the use of reclaimed water are also discussed and good reuse practices are suggested, including a detailed examination of risk assessment procedures and tools through observation or chemical, physical and microbiological analysis. The HACCP system—which focuses on quality determination in water samples from relevant control points—is described in detail, as it is generally accepted as one of the most scientific ways to detect health problems on a golf course. The paper concludes that, given the increasing availability of treated and reclaimed water and the water needs of golf courses, the future development of the sport in areas without surplus water resources—such as the Mediterranean basin—will predictably depend upon the use of reclaimed water. In recent years, risk assessment or analysis has emerged as an essential tool to guarantee the application of reclaimed water at an acceptable risk level. There certainly have been considerable advances and improvements in the tools that guarantee the safe use of reclaimed water, although current methods available require simplification for their practical application. Nevertheless, protocols applied at present seem to be adequate in order to address the key issue of enhancing the development of reclaimed water use on golf courses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Recycling and Reuse)
Open AccessArticle Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater with Constructed Wetlands
Water 2012, 4(1), 260-271; doi:10.3390/w4010260
Received: 6 February 2012 / Accepted: 17 February 2012 / Published: 12 March 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the application of constructed wetlands as a mean to manage olive mill wastewater (OMW). Two free water surface (FWS) constructed wetlands, one without (CW1) and one with effluent recirculation (CW2), were operated for a two-year
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the application of constructed wetlands as a mean to manage olive mill wastewater (OMW). Two free water surface (FWS) constructed wetlands, one without (CW1) and one with effluent recirculation (CW2), were operated for a two-year period with diluted OMW (1:10) and evaluated in terms of the removal of COD, TSS, TKN, NH4+-N, NO3-N, TP and total phenols. The organic loading rate of CWs was adjusted to 925 kg BOD/ha·d. In CW1 the removal efficiency averaged 80%, 83%, 78%, 80%, and 74% for COD, TSS, TKN, TP, and total phenols, respectively, during the operation period. Effluent recirculation further improved the treatment efficiency which approached 90%, 98%, 87%, 85%, and 87% for COD, TSS, TKN, TP, and total phenols, respectively. Constructed wetlands also showed high removal efficiency for NH4+-N. Nitrate concentration maintained low in both CWs basins, probably due to the prevalence of high denitrification rates that efficiently removed the NO3--N produced by NH4+-N oxidation. Despite the increased removal percentages, pollutant concentration in effluent exceeded the allowable limits for discharge in water bodies, suggesting that additional practices, including enhanced pre-application treatment and/or higher dilution rates, are required to make this practice effective for OMW management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Recycling and Reuse)
Open AccessArticle Economic Assessment of an Integrated Membrane System for Secondary Effluent Polishing for Unrestricted Reuse
Water 2012, 4(1), 219-236; doi:10.3390/w4010219
Received: 23 January 2012 / Revised: 17 February 2012 / Accepted: 20 February 2012 / Published: 5 March 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (604 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Extra treatment stages are required to polish the secondary effluent for unrestricted reuse, primarily for agricultural irrigation. Improved technology for the removal of particles, turbidity, bacteria and cysts, without the use of disinfectants is based on MicroFiltration (MF) and UltraFiltration (UF) membrane technology
[...] Read more.
Extra treatment stages are required to polish the secondary effluent for unrestricted reuse, primarily for agricultural irrigation. Improved technology for the removal of particles, turbidity, bacteria and cysts, without the use of disinfectants is based on MicroFiltration (MF) and UltraFiltration (UF) membrane technology and in series with Reverse Osmosis (RO) for dissolved solids removal. Field experiments were conducted using a mobile UF and RO membrane pilot unit at a capacity of around 1.0 m3/hr. A management model was defined and tested towards optimal polishing of secondary effluent. The two major purposes of the management model are: (i) to delineate a methodology for economic assessment of optimal membrane technology implementation for secondary effluent upgrading for unrestricted use, and; (ii) to provide guidelines for optimal RO membrane selection in regards to the pretreatment stage. The defined linear model takes into account the costs of the feed secondary effluent, the UF pretreatment and the RO process. Technological constraints refer primarily to the longevity of the membrane and their performance. Final treatment cost (the objective function) includes investment, operation and maintenance expenses, UF pretreatment, RO treatment, post treatment and incentive for low salinity permeate use. The cost range of water for irrigation according to the model is between 15 and 42 US cents per m3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Recycling and Reuse)
Open AccessArticle Relevance and Benefits of Urban Water Reuse in Tourist Areas
Water 2012, 4(1), 107-122; doi:10.3390/w4010107
Received: 30 December 2011 / Revised: 7 January 2012 / Accepted: 7 January 2012 / Published: 31 January 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2079 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban water reuse is one of the most rapidly growing water reuse applications worldwide and one of the major elements of the sustainable management of urban water cycle. Because of the high probability of direct contact between consumers and recycled water, many technical
[...] Read more.
Urban water reuse is one of the most rapidly growing water reuse applications worldwide and one of the major elements of the sustainable management of urban water cycle. Because of the high probability of direct contact between consumers and recycled water, many technical and regulatory challenges have to be overcome in order to minimize health risks at affordable cost. This paper illustrates the keys to success of one of the first urban water reuse projects in the island Bora Bora, French Polynesia. Special emphasis is given on the reliability of operation of the membrane tertiary treatment, economic viability in terms of pricing of recycled water and operating costs, as well as on the benefits of water reuse for the sustainable development of tourist areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Recycling and Reuse)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Soil Sensitivity towards the Irrigation with Treated Wastewater in the Jordan River Region
Water 2011, 3(4), 1092-1111; doi:10.3390/w3041092
Received: 4 August 2011 / Revised: 6 October 2011 / Accepted: 28 October 2011 / Published: 24 November 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1633 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An assessment of soil sensitivity was carried out regarding the soil suitability for wastewater reuse. This was done based on digital soil maps joined with spatial data on soil properties using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Six major risks of primarily agricultural significance were
[...] Read more.
An assessment of soil sensitivity was carried out regarding the soil suitability for wastewater reuse. This was done based on digital soil maps joined with spatial data on soil properties using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Six major risks of primarily agricultural significance were defined in close collaboration with regional experts. The changes in particular soil and groundwater properties as a result of irrigation with low water quality were evaluated and discussed. Based on the local soil parameters, the specific sensitivity and suitability grades were assessed for the respective soil unit concerning irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW) using standard and specially developed methods. In conclusion, with regard to soil suitability criteria, sensitivity and suitability maps, including the aggregated total sensitivity, were presented for supporting sustainable irrigation practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Recycling and Reuse)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Level of Groundwater Charge to Promote Rainwater Usage for Irrigation in Rural Beijing
Water 2011, 3(4), 1077-1091; doi:10.3390/w3041077
Received: 26 September 2011 / Accepted: 26 October 2011 / Published: 14 November 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since groundwater is diminishing rapidly in rural Beijing, rainwater harvesting for irrigation is being promoted. As the cost of pumping up groundwater is low, farmers have few incentives to use rainwater. To promote the consumption of rainwater, the Beijing Water Authority may in
[...] Read more.
Since groundwater is diminishing rapidly in rural Beijing, rainwater harvesting for irrigation is being promoted. As the cost of pumping up groundwater is low, farmers have few incentives to use rainwater. To promote the consumption of rainwater, the Beijing Water Authority may in the future raise the cost of using groundwater by introducing a charge. Higher cost of groundwater will increase the consumption of rainwater, but can have a negative impact on farmers’ incomes. This paper aims to study how to increase rainwater consumption without discouraging farming. The relation between the cost of groundwater and the consumption of rainwater has been studied by analyzing the elasticity of groundwater demand graphically. If the cost of groundwater is lower than the elasticity threshold, farmers lack incentives to use rainwater. If the cost of groundwater is higher than the threshold, rainwater consumption increases. The elasticity threshold of groundwater can move down following a change in the characteristics of rainwater harvesting systems. With linear programming analysis it has been found that increasing subsidies and enlarging the size of rainwater harvesting systems decreases the elasticity threshold of groundwater. This results in a proposal for a realistic charge for groundwater, affecting the consumption of rainwater but also taking into account the income of the farmers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Recycling and Reuse)
Open AccessArticle Wastewater Reuse Planning in Agriculture: The Case of Aitoloakarnania, Western Greece
Water 2011, 3(4), 988-1004; doi:10.3390/w3040988
Received: 9 September 2011 / Revised: 1 October 2011 / Accepted: 6 October 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (647 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present paper, the possibility of the treated municipal wastewater (TMWW) reuse in agriculture, produced by the Wastewater Treatment Plants of Aitoloakarnania prefecture, one of the greatest agricultural regions of Greece, has been investigated. The boundaries of agricultural soils and the irrigated
[...] Read more.
In the present paper, the possibility of the treated municipal wastewater (TMWW) reuse in agriculture, produced by the Wastewater Treatment Plants of Aitoloakarnania prefecture, one of the greatest agricultural regions of Greece, has been investigated. The boundaries of agricultural soils and the irrigated crops were defined, and the water requirements of crops were calculated. Also the chemical characteristics of the TMWW were determined for the safe reuse in crop production, and for the protection of soils from potential pollution. The research conducted in this area is expected to constitute the basis for an integrated TMWW reuse planning in soils and crops, in the context of sustainable agriculture, and environmental protection. It must be mentioned that the Messolongion-Aitolikon lagoon is in the area under investigation, one of the largest wetland ecosystem of Mediterranean region, which makes the area ecologically sensitive. The ultimate scope of this study is to describe the planning of the TMWW reuse on the basis of soil characteristics, climatic factors, and irrigation water requirements of the crops, grown in this ecologically sensitive area. The volume of the effluents produced by the wastewater treatment plants of Messolonghion, Agrinion, Nafpaktos, Aitoliko and Thermo could cover 19.3%, 25.14%, >100%, 17.18 and 87.84% of the irrigation water requirements, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Recycling and Reuse)
Open AccessArticle Framework for Enhancing the Supply-Demand Balance of a Tri-Supply Urban Water Scheme in Australia
Water 2011, 3(4), 976-987; doi:10.3390/w3040976
Received: 4 July 2011 / Revised: 16 September 2011 / Accepted: 2 October 2011 / Published: 13 October 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fit-for-purpose potable source substitution of appropriate water end uses with rainwater or recycled water is often essential to maintain water security in growing urban regions. This paper provides the results of a detailed supply-demand forecasting review of a unique tri-supply (i.e.,
[...] Read more.
Fit-for-purpose potable source substitution of appropriate water end uses with rainwater or recycled water is often essential to maintain water security in growing urban regions. This paper provides the results of a detailed supply-demand forecasting review of a unique tri-supply (i.e., potable, A+ recycled and rain water sources reticulated to household) urban water scheme located in Queensland, Australia. Despite the numerous benefits of this scheme, system efficiency (e.g., reduced demand levels, water treatment, low chemical and energy use) and economic viability (i.e., capital and operating costs per kL of supply) aspects need to be considered against derived potable water savings. The review underpinned the design of a framework to enhance the schemes supply-demand balance and reduce the unit cost of alternative source supplies. Detailed scenario and sensitivity analysis identified the possibility of a refined scheme design, whereby the A+ recycled water supply would be reticulated to the cold water input tap to the washing machine, and the rain tank that originally supplied this end use be removed from future constructed households. The refined scheme design enhances the present recycled plant utilisation rate and reduces the cost to home owners when building their dwelling due to the removed requirement to install a rain tank to indoor end uses; such actions reduce the overall unit cost of the scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Recycling and Reuse)
Open AccessArticle Water Recycling in Australia
Water 2011, 3(3), 869-881; doi:10.3390/w3030869
Received: 3 August 2011 / Revised: 25 August 2011 / Accepted: 31 August 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near
[...] Read more.
Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Recycling and Reuse)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Artificial Recharge via Boreholes Using Treated Wastewater: Possibilities and Prospects
Water 2011, 3(4), 964-975; doi:10.3390/w3040964
Received: 6 July 2011 / Revised: 7 September 2011 / Accepted: 13 September 2011 / Published: 26 September 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interest in artificial recharge of groundwater using pretreated wastewater continues to increase, especially in semi-arid countries. After the artificial recharge and natural treatment, the water could be extracted through boreholes pumping for direct irrigation. The selection of suitable locations for artificial recharge should
[...] Read more.
Interest in artificial recharge of groundwater using pretreated wastewater continues to increase, especially in semi-arid countries. After the artificial recharge and natural treatment, the water could be extracted through boreholes pumping for direct irrigation. The selection of suitable locations for artificial recharge should be based on hydrogeological conditions, economic evaluation and environmental considerations. Clogging of boreholes that are used for artificial recharge is a serious problem and requires proper planning to reduce it. This paper deals with the investigation of the possibilities and prospects of aquifer recharge via boreholes using treated wastewater. Firstly, the aquifer recharge techniques, the proposed criteria of waste and the clogging effect are presented. Secondly, the possibility of application of artificial recharge in the South-Eastern Mesaoria aquifer of Cyprus is examined. Based on hydrogeological results, artificial recharge using tertiary treated wastewater via boreholes is one of the options available for increasing the groundwater reserves of this aquifer. The recycled water will infiltrate through gravel pack, providing favorable conditions for ventilation and laminar flow due to small water flow velocity. The treatment works include the removal of the fat, oil and grease (FOG) and cyanides (CN) content in order to meet the upper acceptable limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Recycling and Reuse)

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