Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the application of constructed wetlands as a mean to manage olive mill wastewater (OMW). Two free water surface (FWS) constructed wetlands, one without (CW1) and one with effluent recirculation (CW2), were operated for a two-year period with diluted OMW (1:10) and evaluated in terms of the removal of COD, TSS, TKN, NH4+-N, NO3−-N, TP and total phenols. The organic loading rate of CWs was adjusted to 925 kg BOD/ha·d. In CW1 the removal efficiency averaged 80%, 83%, 78%, 80%, and 74% for COD, TSS, TKN, TP, and total phenols, respectively, during the operation period. Effluent recirculation further improved the treatment efficiency which approached 90%, 98%, 87%, 85%, and 87% for COD, TSS, TKN, TP, and total phenols, respectively. Constructed wetlands also showed high removal efficiency for NH4+-N. Nitrate concentration maintained low in both CWs basins, probably due to the prevalence of high denitrification rates that efficiently removed the NO3--N produced by NH4+-N oxidation. Despite the increased removal percentages, pollutant concentration in effluent exceeded the allowable limits for discharge in water bodies, suggesting that additional practices, including enhanced pre-application treatment and/or higher dilution rates, are required to make this practice effective for OMW management.
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Kapellakis, I.E.; Paranychianakis, N.V.; Tsagarakis, K.P.; Angelakis, A.N. Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater with Constructed Wetlands. Water 2012, 4, 260-271.
Kapellakis IE, Paranychianakis NV, Tsagarakis KP, Angelakis AN. Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater with Constructed Wetlands. Water. 2012; 4(1):260-271.
Kapellakis, Iosif E.; Paranychianakis, Nikolaos V.; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.; Angelakis, Andreas N. 2012. "Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater with Constructed Wetlands." Water 4, no. 1: 260-271.