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Special Issue "Small Scale and Decentralized Wastewater Treatment and Reuse within the Concept of Circular Economy"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and Wastewater Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Simos Malamis

Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Heroon Polytechneiou 5, GR 15780 Zographou, Greece
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Guest Editor
Dr. Evina Katsou

Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH, UK
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Guest Editor
Dr. Alper Baba

İzmir Institute of Technology, Engineering Faculty, 35430- Urla-Izmir, Turkey
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Guest Editor
Dr. Maria da Conceição Cunha

Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Luís Reis Santos—Pólo II da Universidade, 3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
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Guest Editor
Dr. Priyanie Amerasinghe

International Water Management Institute, Delhi, India
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Guest Editor
Dr. Michael Stenstrom

University of California, Los Angeles, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, 5714 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1593, USA
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Guest Editor
Dr. Andreas N. Angelakis

1 National Foundation for Agricultural Research (N.AG.RE.F.), Institute of Iraklio, 71110 Iraklio, Greece
2 Hellenic Union of Municipal Enterprises for Water Supply and Sewerage (EDEYA), 41222 Larissa, Greece
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Fax: +30 2810245873
Interests: water resources; environmental engineering; wastewater treatment; aquatic wastewater management systems; water and wastewater management for small and decentralized systems; water and wastewater quality; treated wastewater renovation and reuse; water and wastewater technologies in ancient civilizations

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Our goal is to plan a Special Issue on “Small Scale and Decentralized Wastewater Treatment and Reuse within the Concept of a Circular Economy” to be published in Water. The manuscripts, which will be selected for publication, will demonstrate the state-of-the-art in wastewater treatment technologies, including various aspects related to wastewater treatment technologies, water reuse suitable for small scale and decentralized systems, recharge of wastewater to the underground and how these affect the circular economy concept. It will also include innovative onsite treatment and reuse systems, where the circular economy approach is shown at a household level.

Dr. Simos Malamis
Dr. Evina Katsou
Dr. Alper Baba
Dr. Maria da Conceição Cunha
Dr. Priyanie Amerasinghe
Dr. Michael Stenstrom
Dr. Andreas N. Angelakis
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • History of small-scale waste- and storm-waters management systems including effluent disposal.
  • History of water reuse
  • Evolution of waste- and storm-waters treatment and reuse.
  • Waste- and storm-waters treatment technologies with emphasis on small scale and decentralized systems.
  • Geothermal wastewater and its effects on the environment.
  • Urban waste- and storm-waters management.
  • On-site and decentralized waste- and storm-waters treatment systems.
  • Removal of trace organics and emerging contaminants.
  • Membrane and disinfection technologies.
  • Potential effluent uses (e. g., irrigation, industry, recreation, groundwater recharge, and (in)direct potable).
  • Water reuse planning, policy, monitoring requirements, and standards/criteria.
  • The role of water reuse for integrated water resources management.
  • Waste- and storm-waters treatment and reuse in future cites
  • Sewage biosolids management
  • Economic and social aspects of production and use of recycled water.
  • Health and ecological risk analysis in water recycling applications.
  • Resource recovery from sewage on a small scale

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Treatment of Source-Separated Blackwater: A Decentralized Strategy for Nutrient Recovery towards a Circular Economy
Water 2018, 10(4), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040463
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 7 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
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Abstract
Using a filter medium for organic matter removal and nutrient recovery from blackwater treatment is a novel concept and has not been investigated sufficiently to date. This paper demonstrates a combined blackwater treatment and nutrient-recovery strategy and establishes mechanisms for a more dependable
[...] Read more.
Using a filter medium for organic matter removal and nutrient recovery from blackwater treatment is a novel concept and has not been investigated sufficiently to date. This paper demonstrates a combined blackwater treatment and nutrient-recovery strategy and establishes mechanisms for a more dependable source of plant nutrients aiming at a circular economy. Source-separated blackwater from a student dormitory was used as feedstock for a sludge blanket anaerobic-baffled reactor. The effluent from the reactor, with 710 mg L−1 NH4–N and 63 mg L−1 PO4–P, was treated in a sequence of upflow and downflow filtration columns using granular activated carbon, Cocos char and polonite as filter media at a flow rate of 600 L m−2 day−1 and organic loading rate of 430 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) m−2 day−1. Filtration treatment of the anaerobic effluent with carbon adsorbents removed 80% of the residual organic matter, more than 90% of suspended solids, and turbidity while releasing more than 76% NH4–N and 85% of PO4–P in the liquid phase. The treatment train also removed total coliform bacteria and E. coli in the effluent, achieving concentrations below detection limit after the integration of ultraviolet (UV) light. These integrated technological pathways ensure simultaneous nutrient recovery as a nutrient solution, pathogen inactivation, and reduction of active organic substances. The treated nutrient-rich water can be applied as a source of value creation for various end-use options. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Monte-Carlo-Based Method for the Optimal Placement and Operation Scheduling of Sewer Mining Units in Urban Wastewater Networks
Water 2018, 10(2), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020200
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
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Abstract
Pressures on water resources, which have increased significantly nowadays mainly due to rapid urbanization, population growth and climate change impacts, necessitate the development of innovative wastewater treatment and reuse technologies. In this context, a mid-scale decentralized technology concerning wastewater reuse is that of
[...] Read more.
Pressures on water resources, which have increased significantly nowadays mainly due to rapid urbanization, population growth and climate change impacts, necessitate the development of innovative wastewater treatment and reuse technologies. In this context, a mid-scale decentralized technology concerning wastewater reuse is that of sewer mining. It is based on extracting wastewater from a wastewater system, treating it on-site and producing recycled water applicable for non-potable uses. Despite the technology’s considerable benefits, several challenges hinder its implementation. Sewer mining disturbs biochemical processes inside sewers and affects hydrogen sulfide build-up, resulting in odor, corrosion and health-related problems. In this study, a tool for optimal sewer mining unit placement aiming to minimize hydrogen sulfide production is presented. The Monte-Carlo method coupled with the Environmental Protection Agency’s Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used to conduct multiple simulations of the network. The network’s response when sewage is extracted from it is also examined. Additionally, the study deals with optimal pumping scheduling. The overall methodology is applied in a sewer network in Greece providing useful results. It can therefore assist in selecting appropriate locations for sewer mining implementation, with the focus on eliminating hydrogen sulfide-associated problems while simultaneously ensuring that higher water needs are satisfied. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design of Indicators of Circular Economy as Instruments for the Evaluation of Sustainability and Efficiency in Wastewater from Pig Farming Industry
Water 2017, 9(9), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090653
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Circular economy intends to turn waste into resources that can be reintroduced into the production process, eliminating the negative externalities from it. The impact of pig manure on the environment is one of the main challenges in agriculture. The high amount of pig
[...] Read more.
Circular economy intends to turn waste into resources that can be reintroduced into the production process, eliminating the negative externalities from it. The impact of pig manure on the environment is one of the main challenges in agriculture. The high amount of pig manure coming from the pig farming industry complicates the management of this type of effluents, leading to a serious impact on the environment, as it pollutes the soil, the water, and the air. The concept of the indicator of circular economy was introduced to evaluate the degree of approximation of the pig manure treatment process to the circular economy model. In light of this, these indicators showed the possibility of obtaining 0.97 m3 water h−1, 49.40 kg biofertilizer h−1, and 5.33 m3 biogas h−1 per 1 m3 pig manure h−1 treated, allowing us to assess the minimization of waste generation and the efficiency of the use of resources. By applying an anaerobic digestion process to treat pig manure, reductions of water and natural gas consumptions were 47.01% and 5.33%, respectively, which leads to a reduction in emissions of 171.98 kg CO2 h−1. Consequently, pig manure can be considered as a technological nutrient that is reintroduced into the productive system, enabling the recovery of energy, water, and biofertilizer contained therein. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Treated Greywater Reuse for Hydroponic Lettuce Production in a Green Wall System: Quantitative Health Risk Assessment
Water 2017, 9(7), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9070454
Received: 6 May 2017 / Revised: 4 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The scarcity and pollution of freshwater are extremely crucial issues today, and the expansion of water reuse has been considered as an option to reduce its impact. This study aims to assess the efficiency of an integrated greywater treatment system and hydroponic lettuce
[...] Read more.
The scarcity and pollution of freshwater are extremely crucial issues today, and the expansion of water reuse has been considered as an option to reduce its impact. This study aims to assess the efficiency of an integrated greywater treatment system and hydroponic lettuce production as a part of a green wall structure, and to evaluate the health risk associated with the production and consumption of lettuce through a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) and a chemical health risk assessment. The study was conducted based on the unique configuration of a source separation system; an on-site greywater treatment system; a green wall structure as a polishing step; and hydroponic lettuce production in the green wall structure. The final effluent from the system was used to grow three lettuce varieties by adding urine as a nutrient solution. Both water samples and plant biomass were collected and tested for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and heavy metals contamination. The system has gained a cumulative 5.1 log10 reduction of E. coli in the final effluent and no E. coli found in the plant biomass. The estimated annual infection risk for Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter, and Norovirus was 10−6–10−8, 10−8–10−10, and 10−10–10−11 respectively. These results indicate that the system attained the health-based targets, 10−6 disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per person per year. Similarly, the health risk index (HRI) and targeted hazard quotient (THQ) results did not exceed the permissible level, thus the chemical health risk concern was insignificant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Performance and Microbial Diversity in a Low-Energy ANF-WDSRBC System for the Post-Treatment of Decentralized Domestic Wastewater
Water 2017, 9(5), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9050330
Received: 18 February 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, more decentralized wastewater treatments are of great interest for rural regions. In this work, a novel ANF-WDSRBC system combined with an anoxic filter (ANF) and a four-stage water-dropping-self-rotating biological contactor (WDSRBC) was designed as a post-treatment option. With a total hydraulic retention
[...] Read more.
Recently, more decentralized wastewater treatments are of great interest for rural regions. In this work, a novel ANF-WDSRBC system combined with an anoxic filter (ANF) and a four-stage water-dropping-self-rotating biological contactor (WDSRBC) was designed as a post-treatment option. With a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8.8 h and reflux ratio of 1:1, the ANF-WDSRBC system was operated 160 days. The results showed the ANF-WDSRBC system had better performance without mechanical aeration devices, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia (NH4+–N) and total nitrogen (TN) were 61.4% ± 4.3%, 86.1% ± 3.7%, and 54.5% ± 3.9%, respectively. By means of high-throughput MiSeq sequencing, the results suggested that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Chloroflexi were the predominant phyla in the system. In the WDSRBC units, Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira, Bacillus, and Nitrospira were the main genera to take part in nitrification. Longilinea, Bellilinea, Thiobacillus, and Thauera in the ANF unit were the main genera to participate in denitrification and organic matters degradation. The novel ANF-WDSRBC system had great potential in the post-treatment of decentralized domestic wastewater. Full article
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