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Special Issue "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse"

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A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 October 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Andreas N. Angelakis (Website)

1 National Foundation for Agricultural Research (N.AG.RE.F.), Institute of Iraklio, 71110 Iraklio, Greece
2 Hellenic Union of Municipal Enterprises for Water Supply and Sewerage (EDEYA), 41222 Larissa, Greece
Fax: +30 2810245873
Interests: Water resources; Environmental engineering; Wastewater treatment; Aquatic wastewater management systems; Water and wastewater management for small and decentralized systems; Water and wastewater quality; Treated wastewater renovation and reuse; and Water and wastewater technologies in ancient civilizations
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Shane A. Snyder (Website)

Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, 1133 E. James E. Rogers Way, Tucson, AZ 85721-0011, USA
Guest Editor
Dr. Irene G. Xagoraraki (Website)

Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan State University, A124 Engineering Research Complex, East Lansing MI 48824, USA
Fax: +517 355 0250

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Our goal is to plan a special issue on “Wastewater Management” to be published in the “Water” Journal. The manuscripts selected for publication will demonstrate state of art wastewater treatment technologies, including various aspects related to wastewater management, treatment technologies, water reuse, biosolids production and management, water quality, regulations, economics, public acceptance, risk assessment, benefits, keys for success and main constraints. In addition, papers will cover different types of water reuse, e.g. agricultural irrigation, landscape irrigation and other urban and industrial uses, environmental enhancement, groundwater recharge, as well as indirect and direct potable reuse. Also, papers will cover different technologies for sewage biosolids production and uses, e.g. problems and concerns related to contaminants in biosolids, land application, composting, energy value, physico-chemical value, and others. Within this context, we would like to invite you to contribute to this issue and to disseminate and share findings on water recycling and reuse themes.

The main themes include, but are not limited to:

  • Wastewater treatment technologies.
  • Urban stormwater management.
  • On-site and decentralized wastewater treatment systems.
  • Removal of trace organics and emerging contaminants.
  • Membrane and disinfection technologies.
  • Effluent disposal to waterways.
  • Potential effluent uses (e.g. irrigation, industry, recreation, groundwater recharge, (in)direct potable, and others).
  • Water reuse planning, policy, monitoring requirements, and standards/criteria.
  • The role of water reuse for integrated water resources management.
  • Wastewater treatment and reuse in future cities.
  • Sewage biosolids management (e.g. land application, composting, energy value, and others).
  • Economic and social aspects of production and use of recycled water.
  • Health and ecological risk analysis in water recycling applications.
  • Historical development of wastewater treatment and reuse.
  • Other related research issues.

Dr. Andreas N. Angelakis
Prof. Dr. Shane A. Snyder
Dr. Irene G. Xagoraraki
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Past, Present, and Future
Water 2015, 7(9), 4887-4895; doi:10.3390/w7094887
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 31 August 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 9 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper provides an overview of the Special Issue on Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Past, Present, and Future. The papers selected for publication include advanced wastewater treatment and monitoring technologies, such as membrane bioreactors, electrochemical systems; denitrifying biofilters, and disinfection technologies. The [...] Read more.
This paper provides an overview of the Special Issue on Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Past, Present, and Future. The papers selected for publication include advanced wastewater treatment and monitoring technologies, such as membrane bioreactors, electrochemical systems; denitrifying biofilters, and disinfection technologies. The Issue also contains articles related to best management practices of biosolids, the influence of organic matter on pathogen inactivation and nutrient removal. Collectively, the Special Issue presents an evolution of technologies, from conventional through advanced, for reliable and sustainable wastewater treatment and reuse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Full-Scale Implementation of a Vertical Membrane Bioreactor for Simultaneous Removal of Organic Matter and Nutrients from Municipal Wastewater
Water 2015, 7(3), 1164-1172; doi:10.3390/w7031164
Received: 10 October 2014 / Revised: 9 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In nutrient-sensitive estuaries, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are required to implement more advanced treatment methods in order to meet increasingly stringent effluent guidelines for organic matter and nutrients. To comply with current and anticipated water quality regulations and to reduce the volume [...] Read more.
In nutrient-sensitive estuaries, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are required to implement more advanced treatment methods in order to meet increasingly stringent effluent guidelines for organic matter and nutrients. To comply with current and anticipated water quality regulations and to reduce the volume of produced sludge, we have successfully developed a vertical membrane bioreactor (VMBR) that is composed of anoxic (lower layer) and oxic (upper layer) zones in one reactor. Since 2009, the VMBR has been commercialized (Q = 1100–16,000 m3/d) under the trade-name of DMBRTM for recycling of municipal wastewater in South Korea. In this study, we explore the performance and stability of the full-scale systems. As a result, it was found that the DMBRTM systems showed excellent removal efficiencies of organic substances, suspended solids (SS) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Moreover, average removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) by the DMBRTM systems were found to be 79% and 90% at 18 °C, 8.3 h HRT and 41 d SRT. Moreover, transmembrane pressure (TMP) was maintained below 40 kPa at a flux of 18 L/m2/h (LMH) more than 300 days. Average specific energy consumption of the full-scale DMBRTM systems was found to be 0.94 kWh/m3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
Open AccessArticle Land Application-Based Olive Mill Wastewater Μanagement
Water 2015, 7(2), 362-376; doi:10.3390/w7020362
Received: 10 October 2014 / Revised: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 22 January 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) is considered a promising low-cost practice for olive-oil producing countries. The objectives of this work were to investigate: (i) OMW treatment potential of a land treatment system (LTS), planted with a E. camaldulensis species, [...] Read more.
Land application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) is considered a promising low-cost practice for olive-oil producing countries. The objectives of this work were to investigate: (i) OMW treatment potential of a land treatment system (LTS), planted with a E. camaldulensis species, regarding N, P, C, and phenols; (ii) the effects of OMW on chemical properties of soil and soil solution characteristics; and (iii) the performance of E. camaldulensis in terms of biomass production and N and P recovery. E. camaldulensis received OMW for two growing seasons at rates based on maximum organic loading. These rates were almost equivalent to the reference evapotranspiration of the area. Soil solution and soil samples were collected from three different depths (15, 30 and 60 cm) at specified time intervals. -Also, samples of plant tissues were collected at the end of application periods. OMW land application resulted in significant reduction in inorganic and organic constituents of OMW. At 15 cm of soil profile, the average removal of COD, TKN, NH4+-N, TP, In-P, and total phenols approached 93%, 86%, 70%, 86%, 82%, and 85%, respectively, while an increase in soil depth (30 and 60 cm) did not improve significantly treatment efficiency. Furthermore, OMW increased soil organic matter (SOM), total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and available P, particularly in the upper soil layer. In contrast, low inorganic N content was observed in the soil throughout the study period caused probably by increased competition among soil microorganisms induced by the organic substrate supply and high C/N ratio. Also, electrical conductivity (EC) and SAR increased by OMW addition, but at levels that may do not pose severe risk for soil texture. Enhancement of soil fertility due to OMW application sustained eucalyptus trees and provided remarkable biomass yield. In conclusion, land application of OMW has a great potential for organic matter and phenol assimilation and can be effectively used for OMW detoxification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
Open AccessArticle Carbon Turnover during Effluent Application to the Land: A Potential Role for Vegetation?
Water 2015, 7(1), 288-299; doi:10.3390/w7010288
Received: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 January 2015 / Published: 13 January 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (299 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work investigates the effect of plant species (Eucalyptus camaldulensis vs. Arundo donax) on carbon (C) turnover during wastewater application to the land. The study was carried out in 40-liter pots under field conditions and plant species were treated either [...] Read more.
This work investigates the effect of plant species (Eucalyptus camaldulensis vs. Arundo donax) on carbon (C) turnover during wastewater application to the land. The study was carried out in 40-liter pots under field conditions and plant species were treated either with pre-treated municipal wastewater or freshwater. Plant species had a strong effect on soil organic matter with pots planted with E. camaldulensis showing greater values than pots planted with A. donax. In accordance, greater respiration rates were measured in E. camaldulensis pots compared to those planted with A. donax. The respiration rate followed a decreasing trend with the progress of the season for both species. These findings suggest differences in soil microbial community composition and/or activity in the rhizosphere of plant species. Minor effects of plant species or effluent were observed in dissolved organic carbon, protein, and hexoses content. In conclusion, the results of the present study reveal an important role of plant species on C cycling in terrestrial environments with potential implications on the sequestration of C and release of nutrients and pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
Open AccessArticle Prediction of Biomass Production and Nutrient Uptake in Land Application Using Partial Least Squares Regression Analysis
Water 2015, 7(1), 1-11; doi:10.3390/w7010001
Received: 10 September 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 23 December 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) can integrate a great number of variables and overcome collinearity problems, a fact that makes it suitable for intensive agronomical practices such as land application. In the present study a PLSR model was developed to predict important [...] Read more.
Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) can integrate a great number of variables and overcome collinearity problems, a fact that makes it suitable for intensive agronomical practices such as land application. In the present study a PLSR model was developed to predict important management goals, including biomass production and nutrient recovery (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus), associated with treatment potential, environmental impacts, and economic benefits. Effluent loading and a considerable number of soil parameters commonly monitored in effluent irrigated lands were considered as potential predictor variables during the model development. All data were derived from a three year field trial including plantations of four different plant species (Acacia cyanophylla, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Populus nigra, and Arundo donax), irrigated with pre-treated domestic effluent. PLSR method was very effective despite the small sample size and the wide nature of data set (with many highly correlated inputs and several highly correlated responses). Through PLSR method the number of initial predictor variables was reduced and only several variables were remained and included in the final PLSR model. The important input variables maintained were: Effluent loading, electrical conductivity (EC), available phosphorus (Olsen-P), Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K2+, SAR, and NO3-N. Among these variables, effluent loading, EC, and nitrates had the greater contribution to the final PLSR model. PLSR is highly compatible with intensive agronomical practices such as land application, in which a large number of highly collinear and noisy input variables is monitored to assess plant species performance and to detect impacts on the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
Open AccessArticle Selecting a Sustainable Disinfection Technique for Wastewater Reuse Projects
Water 2014, 6(9), 2732-2747; doi:10.3390/w6092732
Received: 17 June 2014 / Revised: 27 August 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 15 September 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an application of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) by integrating a Delphi process for selecting the best sustainable disinfection technique for wastewater reuse projects. The proposed methodology provides project managers a tool to evaluate problems with multiple criteria and [...] Read more.
This paper presents an application of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) by integrating a Delphi process for selecting the best sustainable disinfection technique for wastewater reuse projects. The proposed methodology provides project managers a tool to evaluate problems with multiple criteria and multiple alternatives which involve non-commeasurable decision criteria, with expert opinions playing a major role in the selection of these treatment technologies. Five disinfection techniques for wastewater reuse have been evaluated for each of the nine criteria weighted according to the opinions of consulted experts. Finally, the VIKOR method has been applied to determine a compromise solution, and to establish the stability of the results. Therefore, the expert system proposed to select the optimal disinfection alternative is a hybrid method combining the AHP with the Delphi method and the VIKOR technique, which is shown to be appropriate in realistic scenarios where multiple stakeholders are involved in the selection of a sustainable disinfection technique for wastewater reuse projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Tertiary Denitrification of the Secondary Effluent by Denitrifying Biofilters Packed with Different Sizes of Quartz Sand
Water 2014, 6(5), 1300-1311; doi:10.3390/w6051300
Received: 1 March 2014 / Revised: 18 April 2014 / Accepted: 29 April 2014 / Published: 13 May 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tertiary denitrification of the secondary effluent in wastewater treatment plants is necessary to control the eutrophication of receiving water bodies. Two denitrifying biofilters (DNBF), one packed with quart sand with sizes of 2–4 mm (DNBFS) and the other of 4–6 [...] Read more.
Tertiary denitrification of the secondary effluent in wastewater treatment plants is necessary to control the eutrophication of receiving water bodies. Two denitrifying biofilters (DNBF), one packed with quart sand with sizes of 2–4 mm (DNBFS) and the other of 4–6 mm (DNBFL), were operated for tertiary denitrification under empty bed retention times (EBRTs) of 30 min, 15 min and 7.5 min, respectively. Under EBRTs of 30 min, 15 min and 7.5 min, the NO3-N removal percentages were 93%, 82% and 83% in DNBFS, and were 92%, 68% and 36% in DNBFL, respectively. The nitrogen removal loading rates increased with decreasing EBRTs, and at the EBRT of 7.5 min, the rate was 2.15 kg/(m3·d) in DNBFS and 1.08 kg/(m3·d) in DNBFL. The half-order denitrification coefficient of DNBFS increased from 0.42 (mg/L)1/2/min at the EBRT of 30 min to 0.70 (mg/L)1/2/min at the EBRT of 7.5 min, while did not vary much in DNBFL with values from 0.22 to 0.25 (mg/L)1/2/min. The performance of both DNBFs was stable within each backwashing cycle, with the NO3-N removal percentage variation within 5%. Better denitrification was achieved in DNBFS but with a slightly high decreased flow rate during the operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Study of Three Two-Stage Hybrid Ecological Wastewater Treatment Systems for Producing High Nutrient, Reclaimed Water for Irrigation Reuse in Developing Countries
Water 2014, 6(2), 213-228; doi:10.3390/w6020213
Received: 14 November 2013 / Revised: 18 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (911 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, three different two-stage hybrid ecological wastewater treatment systems (HEWTS) with combinations of horizontal flow (HF) constructed wetlands (CWs), vertical flow (VF) CWs and stabilization ponds (SP) were evaluated for the removal of Organic-N, NH4+, NO3 [...] Read more.
In this study, three different two-stage hybrid ecological wastewater treatment systems (HEWTS) with combinations of horizontal flow (HF) constructed wetlands (CWs), vertical flow (VF) CWs and stabilization ponds (SP) were evaluated for the removal of Organic-N, NH4+, NO3, Total N, Total P, Total Coliforms (TCol) and Escherichia Coli, BOD, COD and TSS. The overall goal of the study was novel in comparison to most other studies in that we sought to evaluate and compare the efficiency of the three HEWTSs for water quality improvements, while minimizing nutrient removal from the wastewater in order to generate high quality reclaimed water for reuse for irrigation of crops. The most effective systems were those systems containing a vertical flow component, either HF-VF or VF-HF. In these two HEWTS, NH4+ was reduced by 85.5% and 85.0% respectively, while NO3 was increased to 91.4 ± 17.6 mg/L and to 82.5 ± 17.2 mg/L, respectively, an artifact of nitrification. At the same time, E. coli was reduced by 99.93% and 99.99%, respectively. While the goal of most wastewater treatment is focused on reducing nutrients, the results here demonstrate that two-stage HEWTSs containing VF components can be used to produce a high quality effluent while retaining inorganic nutrients, thereby conserving this valuable resource for reuse as irrigation water for agriculture in subtropical developing countries where water and fertilizer resources are scarce or expensive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)

Review

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Open AccessReview When Bioelectrochemical Systems Meet Forward Osmosis: Accomplishing Wastewater Treatment and Reuse through Synergy
Water 2015, 7(1), 38-50; doi:10.3390/w7010038
Received: 20 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 December 2014 / Published: 23 December 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) and forward osmosis (FO) are two emerging technologies with great potential for energy-efficient water/wastewater treatment. BES takes advantage of microbial interaction with a solid electron acceptor/donor to accomplish bioenergy recovery from organic compounds, and FO can extract high-quality water [...] Read more.
Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) and forward osmosis (FO) are two emerging technologies with great potential for energy-efficient water/wastewater treatment. BES takes advantage of microbial interaction with a solid electron acceptor/donor to accomplish bioenergy recovery from organic compounds, and FO can extract high-quality water driven by an osmotic pressure. The strong synergy between those two technologies may complement each other and collaboratively address water-energy nexus. FO can assist BES with achieving water recovery (for future reuse), enhancing electricity generation, and supplying energy for accomplishing the cathode reactions; while BES may help FO with degrading organic contaminants, providing sustainable draw solute, and stabilizing water flux. This work has reviewed the recent development that focuses on the synergy between BES and FO, analyzed the advantages of each combination, and provided perspectives for future research. The findings encourage further investigation and development for efficient coordination between BES and FO towards an integrated system for wastewater treatment and reuse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
Open AccessReview Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US
Water 2014, 6(12), 3701-3723; doi:10.3390/w6123701
Received: 30 July 2014 / Revised: 31 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 28 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most of the waterborne disease outbreaks observed in North America are associated with rural drinking water systems. The majority of the reported waterborne outbreaks are related to microbial agents (parasites, bacteria and viruses). Rural areas are characterized by high livestock density and [...] Read more.
Most of the waterborne disease outbreaks observed in North America are associated with rural drinking water systems. The majority of the reported waterborne outbreaks are related to microbial agents (parasites, bacteria and viruses). Rural areas are characterized by high livestock density and lack of advanced treatment systems for animal and human waste, and wastewater. Animal waste from livestock production facilities is often applied to land without prior treatment. Biosolids (treated municipal wastewater sludge) from large wastewater facilities in urban areas are often transported and applied to land in rural areas. This situation introduces a potential for risk of human exposure to waterborne contaminants such as human and zoonotic pathogens originating from manure, biosolids, and leaking septic systems. This paper focuses on waterborne outbreaks and sources of microbial pollution in rural areas in the US, characterization of the microbial load of biosolids and manure, association of biosolid and manure application with microbial contamination of surface and groundwater, risk assessment and best management practice for biosolids and manure application to protect water quality. Gaps in knowledge are identified, and recommendations to improve the water quality in the rural areas are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
Open AccessReview Removal of Pathogens by Membrane Bioreactors: A Review of the Mechanisms, Influencing Factors and Reduction in Chemical Disinfectant Dosing
Water 2014, 6(12), 3603-3630; doi:10.3390/w6123603
Received: 16 October 2014 / Revised: 16 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 26 November 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The continued depletion of fresh drinking water resources throughout the world has increased the need for a variety of water treatment and recycling strategies. Conventional wastewater treatment processes rely on extensive chemical post-disinfection to comply with the stringent microbiological safety for water [...] Read more.
The continued depletion of fresh drinking water resources throughout the world has increased the need for a variety of water treatment and recycling strategies. Conventional wastewater treatment processes rely on extensive chemical post-disinfection to comply with the stringent microbiological safety for water reuse. When well designed and operated, membrane bioreactors (MBRs) can consistently achieve efficient removals of suspended solids, protozoa and coliform bacteria. Under optimal conditions, MBR systems can also significantly remove various viruses and phages. This paper provides an in-depth overview of the mechanisms and influencing factors of pathogen removal by MBR and highlights practical issues, such as reduced chemical disinfectant dosing requirements and associated economic and environmental benefits. Special attention has been paid to the aspects, such as membrane cleaning, membrane imperfections/breach and microbial regrowth, in the distribution system on the overall pathogen removal performance of MBR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)

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