Next Article in Journal
A Perspective on Sea Level Rise and Coastal Storm Surge from Southern and Eastern Africa: A Case Study Near Durban, South Africa
Next Article in Special Issue
Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater with Constructed Wetlands
Previous Article in Journal
Physical Vulnerability Assessment Based on Fluid and Classical Mechanics to Support Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flood Risk Mitigation Strategies
Previous Article in Special Issue
Relevance and Benefits of Urban Water Reuse in Tourist Areas
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2012, 4(1), 219-236; doi:10.3390/w4010219

Economic Assessment of an Integrated Membrane System for Secondary Effluent Polishing for Unrestricted Reuse

The Department of Chemical Engineering, Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, Ramat-Gan 52526, Israel
The Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Kiryat Sde-Boker 84990, Israel
Central Virological Lab., Sheba Medical Center, Tel-HaShomer 52621, Israel
The Department of Industrial Engineering and Management and the Environmental Engineering Program, Ben-Gurion University of The Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel
The Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Jerusalem College of Engineering, Jerusalem 96920, Israel
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 January 2012 / Revised: 17 February 2012 / Accepted: 20 February 2012 / Published: 5 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Recycling and Reuse)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [604 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]   |  


Extra treatment stages are required to polish the secondary effluent for unrestricted reuse, primarily for agricultural irrigation. Improved technology for the removal of particles, turbidity, bacteria and cysts, without the use of disinfectants is based on MicroFiltration (MF) and UltraFiltration (UF) membrane technology and in series with Reverse Osmosis (RO) for dissolved solids removal. Field experiments were conducted using a mobile UF and RO membrane pilot unit at a capacity of around 1.0 m3/hr. A management model was defined and tested towards optimal polishing of secondary effluent. The two major purposes of the management model are: (i) to delineate a methodology for economic assessment of optimal membrane technology implementation for secondary effluent upgrading for unrestricted use, and; (ii) to provide guidelines for optimal RO membrane selection in regards to the pretreatment stage. The defined linear model takes into account the costs of the feed secondary effluent, the UF pretreatment and the RO process. Technological constraints refer primarily to the longevity of the membrane and their performance. Final treatment cost (the objective function) includes investment, operation and maintenance expenses, UF pretreatment, RO treatment, post treatment and incentive for low salinity permeate use. The cost range of water for irrigation according to the model is between 15 and 42 US cents per m3.
Keywords: effluent; membranes; optimization; renovation; reverse-osmosis; management modeling effluent; membranes; optimization; renovation; reverse-osmosis; management modeling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bick, A.; Gillerman, L.; Manor, Y.; Oron, G. Economic Assessment of an Integrated Membrane System for Secondary Effluent Polishing for Unrestricted Reuse. Water 2012, 4, 219-236.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top