Water 2012, 4(1), 219-236; doi:10.3390/w4010219
Article

Economic Assessment of an Integrated Membrane System for Secondary Effluent Polishing for Unrestricted Reuse

1email, 2email, 3email and 2,4,5,* email
Received: 23 January 2012; in revised form: 17 February 2012 / Accepted: 20 February 2012 / Published: 5 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Recycling and Reuse)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Extra treatment stages are required to polish the secondary effluent for unrestricted reuse, primarily for agricultural irrigation. Improved technology for the removal of particles, turbidity, bacteria and cysts, without the use of disinfectants is based on MicroFiltration (MF) and UltraFiltration (UF) membrane technology and in series with Reverse Osmosis (RO) for dissolved solids removal. Field experiments were conducted using a mobile UF and RO membrane pilot unit at a capacity of around 1.0 m3/hr. A management model was defined and tested towards optimal polishing of secondary effluent. The two major purposes of the management model are: (i) to delineate a methodology for economic assessment of optimal membrane technology implementation for secondary effluent upgrading for unrestricted use, and; (ii) to provide guidelines for optimal RO membrane selection in regards to the pretreatment stage. The defined linear model takes into account the costs of the feed secondary effluent, the UF pretreatment and the RO process. Technological constraints refer primarily to the longevity of the membrane and their performance. Final treatment cost (the objective function) includes investment, operation and maintenance expenses, UF pretreatment, RO treatment, post treatment and incentive for low salinity permeate use. The cost range of water for irrigation according to the model is between 15 and 42 US cents per m3.
Keywords: effluent; membranes; optimization; renovation; reverse-osmosis; management modeling
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [604 KB, uploaded 5 March 2012 09:34 CET]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Bick, A.; Gillerman, L.; Manor, Y.; Oron, G. Economic Assessment of an Integrated Membrane System for Secondary Effluent Polishing for Unrestricted Reuse. Water 2012, 4, 219-236.

AMA Style

Bick A, Gillerman L, Manor Y, Oron G. Economic Assessment of an Integrated Membrane System for Secondary Effluent Polishing for Unrestricted Reuse. Water. 2012; 4(1):219-236.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bick, Amos; Gillerman, Leonid; Manor, Yossi; Oron, Gideon. 2012. "Economic Assessment of an Integrated Membrane System for Secondary Effluent Polishing for Unrestricted Reuse." Water 4, no. 1: 219-236.

Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert