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Water 2016, 8(9), 409; doi:10.3390/w8090409

The Effect of Artificial Recharge on Hydrochemistry: A Comparison of Two Fluvial Gravel Pit Lakes with Different Post-Excavation Uses in The Netherlands

1
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Piazza Porta San Donato 1, 40123 Bologna, Italy
2
NV WML WaterleidingMaatschappij Limburg, Limburglaan 25, 6229 GA Maastricht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Erik Jeppesen and Martin Søndergaard
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 26 August 2016 / Accepted: 7 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Abstract

Gravel pit lakes form when gravel deposits are excavated below the water table. We studied two fluvial gravel pit lakes called De Lange Vlieter (DLV Lake) and the Boschmolen Plas (BP Lake), in the Meuse River valley (The Netherlands). Water from the Meuse River is pumped only into the DLV Lake that is used for drinking water production. The mean values, the linear trends and seasonal patterns of time series data (2003–2014), of temperature, pH, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate were compared using one-way tests of variance and tests of differences. The effects of river water infiltration on DLV Lake are (1) a change in lake water temperature; (2) an increase in nitrate concentration (3) an increase in phosphate concentration and (4) a decrease in sulphate concentration. The effects of the air blowers in DLV Lake are (1) mixing of lake water; (2) decreasing pH in spring and summer (3) water oxygenation. Linear regression analysis shows an initially increasing nitrate concentration in DLV Lake that can be explained by the input of nitrate rich Meuse river water. Instead decreasing nitrate and phosphate concentrations in BP Lake and Meuse River reflect a diminished use of fertilizers. The gravel pit lake water temperature does not reflect climatic changes but the use of DLV Lake for artificial recharge has an impact on the seasonal and long-term trends in hydrochemistry. This poses a challenge to lake managers to find the right balance between reduction of eutrophication and accumulation of nutrients and sulphate. View Full-Text
Keywords: gravel pit lake; river; artificial recharge; water quality; nutrients; time series data; seasonal variation; drinking water production; Meuse River; The Netherlands gravel pit lake; river; artificial recharge; water quality; nutrients; time series data; seasonal variation; drinking water production; Meuse River; The Netherlands
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mollema, P.N.; Antonellini, M.; Hubeek, A.; Van Diepenbeek, P.M.J.A. The Effect of Artificial Recharge on Hydrochemistry: A Comparison of Two Fluvial Gravel Pit Lakes with Different Post-Excavation Uses in The Netherlands. Water 2016, 8, 409.

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