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Water 2017, 9(2), 127; doi:10.3390/w9020127

Restoration of Eutrophic Lakes with Fluctuating Water Levels: A 20-Year Monitoring Study of Two Inter-Connected Lakes

1
Limnology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Çankaya, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
2
Kemal Kurdaş Ecological Research and Training Stations, Lake Eymir, Middle East Technical University, Oran Mahallesi, Çankaya, 06400 Ankara, Turkey
3
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Arts, Bozok University, 66900 Yozgat, Turkey
4
Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Erdemli, 33340 Mersin, Turkey
5
Department of Forest Engineering, Çankırı Karatekin University, 18200 Çankırı, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Erik Jeppesen
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Abstract

Eutrophication continues to be the most important problem preventing a favorable environmental state and detrimentally impacting the ecosystem services of lakes. The current study describes the results of analyses of 20 year monitoring data from two interconnected Anatolian lakes, Lakes Mogan and Eymir, receiving sewage effluents and undergoing restoration. The first step of restoration in both lakes was sewage effluent diversion. Additionally, in hypertrophic Lake Eymir, biomanipulation was conducted, involving removal of benthi-planktivorous fish and prohibition of pike fishing. The monitoring period included high (H) and low (L) water levels (WL) enabling elucidation of the effects of hydrological changes on lake restoration. In shallower Lake Mogan, macrophyte abundance increased after the sewage effluent diversion in periods with low water levels even at turbid water. In comparatively deeper Lake Eymir, the first biomanipulation led to a clear water state with abundant macrophyte coverage. However, shortly after biomanipulation, the water clarity declined, coinciding with low water level (LWL) periods during which nutrient concentrations increased. A second biomanipulation was conducted, mostly during high water level (HWL) period, resulting in a major decrease in nutrient concentrations and clearer water, but without an expansion of macrophytes. We conclude that repetitive fish removal may induce recovery but its success may be confounded by high availability of nutrients and adverse hydrological conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: benthivorous fish; biomanipulation; clear water; climate change; drought; flushing; sewage effluent diversion; Mediterranean benthivorous fish; biomanipulation; clear water; climate change; drought; flushing; sewage effluent diversion; Mediterranean
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Beklioğlu, M.; Bucak, T.; Coppens, J.; Bezirci, G.; Tavşanoğlu, Ü.N.; Çakıroğlu, A.İ.; Levi, E.E.; Erdoğan, Ş.; Filiz, N.; Özkan, K.; Özen, A. Restoration of Eutrophic Lakes with Fluctuating Water Levels: A 20-Year Monitoring Study of Two Inter-Connected Lakes. Water 2017, 9, 127.

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