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Open AccessEditorial
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051553

Open Innovation of James Watt and Steve Jobs: Insights for Sustainability of Economic Growth

1
Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 333, Techno Jungang-daero, Hyeonpung-myeon, Dalseon-gun, Daegu 42988, Korea
2
Korea Institute of Public Affairs, Graduate School of Public Administration, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 086626, Korea
3
School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 12 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract

This paper analyzes open innovation approach similarities and differences of James Watt and Steve Jobs—symbolic entrepreneurs of the First and Fourth Industrial Revolutions, respectively. The methodologic approach includes a review of the literature. Firstly, the key characteristics of the First and Fourth Industrial Revolutions are determined by comprehensively reviewing the literature—particularly books on both legendary innovation entrepreneurs. Secondly, the related preceding research that describes open innovation characteristics that James Watt and Steve Jobs possessed are critically analyzed. Thirdly, open innovation strategies promoted by the two innovation entrepreneurs are scrutinized by analyzing the related literature. The findings reveal the common and differing points of the two entrepreneurs’ open innovation strategies and approaches. This paper serves as an editorial piece and introduces the special issue entitled ‘Sustainability of Economic Growth: Combining Technology, Market, and Society’, where the special issue contains 19 papers directly related to the open innovation strategy of Steve Jobs and James Watt. View Full-Text
Keywords: James Watt; Steve Jobs; open innovation; innovation strategy; sustainability; economic growth; innovation entrepreneurship James Watt; Steve Jobs; open innovation; innovation strategy; sustainability; economic growth; innovation entrepreneurship
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Yun, J.J.; Jung, K.; Yigitcanlar, T. Open Innovation of James Watt and Steve Jobs: Insights for Sustainability of Economic Growth. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1553.

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