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Topical Collection "Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing"

Editor

Collection Editor
Prof. James (Jong Hyuk) Park

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology (SeoulTech), 232 Gongneung-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 01811, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +82-2-970-6702
Fax: +82-2-977-9441
Interests: IoT; human-centric ubiquitous computing; information security; digital forensics; vehicular cloud computing; multimedia computing

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Future Sustainability Computing (FSC) is a principle that embraces a range of policies, procedures, programs, and attitudes that run the length and breadth of any uses of information technologies for abundant life. It must address sustainability problems in different computing and information processing environments and technologies. Solutions for these problems, information processing, integration, utilization, aggregation, and generation, can call upon a wide range of algorithmic and computational frameworks within cloud, cluster and mobile computing, such as optimization, machine learning, dynamical systems, prediction and control, decision support systems, and meta-heuristics, security and safety, and so on.

This Topical Collection covers pure research and applications within the novel scopes related to sustainability computing, such as smart devices, cloud storage organization, data transfer in new communication environment, software and information processing, and efficient algorithmic information distribution/processing. In addition, it is dealing with hardware/software technologies, new frameworks and architectures, efficient modeling-simulation, specific mathematical models, and designs on theories for the future sustainability computing are recommended.

All submitted papers will be peer-reviewed and selected on the basis of both their quality and their relevance to the theme of this topical collection. This Topical Collection solicits innovative ideas and solutions in all aspects around the future sustainable computing for advanced information technology. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Theoretical and algorithms aspect of energy in FSC
  • New paradigm software, middleware and systems in FSC
  • Energy-efficient communication protocols in FSC
  • Optimization, machine learning, prediction and control, decision support systems for FSC
  • Smart networking and real-time systems in FSC
  • Management in memory, disk, storage and other peripheral devices with cloud computing
  • Monitoring and visualization methodologies and tools in FSC
  • Ecosystem for FSC
  • Security and safety for FSC
  • Wearable computing in FSC
  • Sustainable information technologies for governance
  • Other sustainable systems and applications for FSC

Prof. Dr. James Park
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy-efficient
  • optimization and control
  • green cloud
  • ecosystem
  • smart networking
  • security and safety
  • monitoring

Published Papers (11 papers)

2018

Jump to: 2017

Open AccessArticle Context-Aware Multimodal FIDO Authenticator for Sustainable IT Services
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1656; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051656
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Existing sustainable IT services have several problems related to user authentication such as the inefficiency of managing the system security, low security, and low usability. In this paper, we propose a Fast IDentity Online (FIDO) authenticator that performs continuous authentication with implicit authentication
[...] Read more.
Existing sustainable IT services have several problems related to user authentication such as the inefficiency of managing the system security, low security, and low usability. In this paper, we propose a Fast IDentity Online (FIDO) authenticator that performs continuous authentication with implicit authentication based on user context and multimodal authentication. The proposed FIDO authenticator, a context-aware multimodal FIDO authentication (CAMFA) method, combines information such as the user context, state of the mobile device, and user biometrics, then applies implicit and explicit authentication methods to meet the level of authentication required by the service provider. This reduces the user’s explicit authentication burden and continually authenticates users at risk during the session. Moreover, it is able to respond to attacks such as the theft of the authentication method or session hijacking. To study the effectiveness of CAMFA, we ran a user study by collecting data from 22 participants over 42 days of activity on a practical Android platform. The result of the user study demonstrates that the number of explicit authentication requests could be reduced by half. Based on the results of this study, an advanced user authentication that provides multimodal and continuous authentication could be applied to sustainable IT services. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Automated Vulnerability Detection and Remediation Method for Software Security
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1652; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051652
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
PDF Full-text (894 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As hacking techniques become more sophisticated, vulnerabilities have been gradually increasing. Between 2010 and 2015, around 80,000 vulnerabilities were newly registered in the CVE (Common Vulnerability Enumeration), and the number of vulnerabilities has continued to rise. While the number of vulnerabilities is increasing
[...] Read more.
As hacking techniques become more sophisticated, vulnerabilities have been gradually increasing. Between 2010 and 2015, around 80,000 vulnerabilities were newly registered in the CVE (Common Vulnerability Enumeration), and the number of vulnerabilities has continued to rise. While the number of vulnerabilities is increasing rapidly, the response to them relies on manual analysis, resulting in a slow response speed. It is necessary to develop techniques that can detect and patch vulnerabilities automatically. This paper introduces a trend of techniques and tools related to automated vulnerability detection and remediation. We propose an automated vulnerability detection method based on binary complexity analysis to prevent a zero-day attack. We also introduce an automatic patch generation method through PLT/GOT table modification to respond to zero-day vulnerabilities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Signal Outages of CSMA/CA-Based Wireless Networks with Different AP Densities
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051483
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
PDF Full-text (773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In wireless networks, users may experience outages owing to low received signal strength. Divergent from other research, we investigate the outages for users of CSMA/CA-based wireless networks when multiple access points (APs) and multiple users are randomly positioned in a given area. We
[...] Read more.
In wireless networks, users may experience outages owing to low received signal strength. Divergent from other research, we investigate the outages for users of CSMA/CA-based wireless networks when multiple access points (APs) and multiple users are randomly positioned in a given area. We model the locations of the APs and users using independent homogeneous Poisson point processes (PPPs), and analyze the signal outage probabilities of users when there are different numbers of access points, as well as when different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) are used for communication. We also investigate heterogeneous CSMA/CA-based wireless networks, wherein the APs use different transmit powers. Then, we evaluate the results and compare the signal outage rates of users with the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) outage rates of users in both homogeneous and heterogeneous IEEE 802.11a wireless networks using extensive event-driven simulations. The simulation results validate our analysis on the signal outages of users in multi-cell, multi-user wireless networking environments, and show that a significant portion of outages are caused by the signal outages when AP densities are low and high MCS levels are used for communication. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Advanced Camera Image Cropping Approach for CNN-Based End-to-End Controls on Sustainable Computing
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030816
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
PDF Full-text (5755 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent research on deep learning has been applied to a diversity of fields. In particular, numerous studies have been conducted on self-driving vehicles using end-to-end approaches based on images captured by a single camera. End-to-end controls learn the output vectors of output devices
[...] Read more.
Recent research on deep learning has been applied to a diversity of fields. In particular, numerous studies have been conducted on self-driving vehicles using end-to-end approaches based on images captured by a single camera. End-to-end controls learn the output vectors of output devices directly from the input vectors of available input devices. In other words, an end-to-end approach learns not by analyzing the meaning of input vectors, but by extracting optimal output vectors based on input vectors. Generally, when end-to-end control is applied to self-driving vehicles, the steering wheel and pedals are controlled autonomously by learning from the images captured by a camera. However, high-resolution images captured from a car cannot be directly used as inputs to Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) owing to memory limitations; the image size needs to be efficiently reduced. Therefore, it is necessary to extract features from captured images automatically and to generate input images by merging the parts of the images that contain the extracted features. This paper proposes a learning method for end-to-end control that generates input images for CNNs by extracting road parts from input images, identifying the edges of the extracted road parts, and merging the parts of the images that contain the detected edges. In addition, a CNN model for end-to-end control is introduced. Experiments involving the Open Racing Car Simulator (TORCS), a sustainable computing environment for cars, confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method for self-driving by comparing the accumulated difference in the angle of the steering wheel in the images generated by it with those of resized images containing the entire captured area and cropped images containing only a part of the captured area. The results showed that the proposed method reduced the accumulated difference by 0.839% and 0.850% compared to those yielded by the resized images and cropped images, respectively. Full article
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2017

Jump to: 2018

Open AccessArticle Cloud-Centric and Logically Isolated Virtual Network Environment Based on Software-Defined Wide Area Network
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2382; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122382
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
PDF Full-text (6768 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent development of distributed cloud environments requires advanced network infrastructure in order to facilitate network automation, virtualization, high performance data transfer, and secured access of end-to-end resources across regional boundaries. In order to meet these innovative cloud networking requirements, software-defined wide area network
[...] Read more.
Recent development of distributed cloud environments requires advanced network infrastructure in order to facilitate network automation, virtualization, high performance data transfer, and secured access of end-to-end resources across regional boundaries. In order to meet these innovative cloud networking requirements, software-defined wide area network (SD-WAN) is primarily demanded to converge distributed cloud resources (e.g., virtual machines (VMs)) in a programmable and intelligent manner over distant networks. Therefore, this paper proposes a logically isolated networking scheme designed to integrate distributed cloud resources to dynamic and on-demand virtual networking over SD-WAN. The performance evaluation and experimental results of the proposed scheme indicate that virtual network convergence time is minimized in two different network models such as: (1) an operating OpenFlow-oriented SD-WAN infrastructure (KREONET-S) which is deployed on the advanced national research network in Korea, and (2) Mininet-based experimental and emulated networks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Governance and Management Framework for Green IT
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1761; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101761
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1655 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, Green Information Technology (IT) has grown enormously, and has become an increasingly important and essential area, providing multiple benefits to the organizations that focus on it. It is for this reason that there is an increasing number of organizations embracing
[...] Read more.
In recent years, Green Information Technology (IT) has grown enormously, and has become an increasingly important and essential area, providing multiple benefits to the organizations that focus on it. It is for this reason that there is an increasing number of organizations embracing the idea of Green IT. However, Green IT is a very young field and each organization implements it according to its own criteria. That is why it is extremely important to develop the bases or best practices of governance and management that allow organizations to implement Green IT practices correctly and standardize them. In this article, we propose the “Governance and Management Framework for Green IT”, establishing the characteristics needed to carry out the governance and management of Green IT in an organization, and perform audits in this area. This framework is based on COBIT 5, which is a general framework for the control and audit of different areas related to IT. The results obtained through different validations demonstrate the validity and usefulness of the framework developed in the field of Green IT, providing a complete guide to the organizations in their efforts to implement, control and/or improve the practices of Green IT in their processes and day-to-day operations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Study on a JWT-Based User Authentication and API Assessment Scheme Using IMEI in a Smart Home Environment
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9071099
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 18 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
PDF Full-text (4047 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of information and communication technology (ICT) has opened the era of the Internet of Things (IoT), in which many devices can connect to the Internet to communicate. Recently, various technologies, such as smart grids, connected cars, and smart farms, have emerged
[...] Read more.
The development of information and communication technology (ICT) has opened the era of the Internet of Things (IoT), in which many devices can connect to the Internet to communicate. Recently, various technologies, such as smart grids, connected cars, and smart farms, have emerged based on IoT, and there is also the smart home, which is the fastest growing market. The smart home is where devices installed for various purposes connect to each other through the Internet so that users can use the service anytime and anywhere. However, while the smart home provides convenience to users, recently the smart home has been exposed to various security threats, such as vulnerability of session/cookies and the use of vulnerable OAuth. In addition, attacks on smart homes by hackers using these vulnerabilities are also increasing. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a user authentication method using the JSON Web Token (JWT) and International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) in the smart home, and solved the problem of unauthorized smart home device registration of hackers by the application of IMEI and JWT technology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design and Analysis of Multiple OS Implementation on a Single ARM-Based Embedded Platform
Sustainability 2017, 9(5), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9050684
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 15 April 2017 / Accepted: 15 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
PDF Full-text (6554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, with the development of embedded system hardware technology, there is a need to support various kinds of operating system (OS) operation in embedded systems. In mobile processors, ARM started to provide the virtualization extension support technology which was intended for processors in
[...] Read more.
Recently, with the development of embedded system hardware technology, there is a need to support various kinds of operating system (OS) operation in embedded systems. In mobile processors, ARM started to provide the virtualization extension support technology which was intended for processors in PC processors. Virtualization technology has the advantage of using hardware resources effectively. If the real-time operating system (RTOS) is operated on a hypervisor, there is a problem that RTOS performance is degraded due to overhead. Thus, we need to compare the performance between a single execution of the RTOS and simultaneous execution of multiple OS (RTOS + Linux). Therefore, in this paper, we measure the performance when the RTOS operates independently on the NVidia Jetson TK-1 embedded board supporting virtualization technology. Then, we measure the performance when the RTOS and Linux are operating simultaneously on top of a hypervisor. For this purpose, we implemented and ported such a RTOS, especially FreeRTOS and uC/OS, onto two embedded boards, such as the Arndale board (SAMSUNG, Seoul, South Korea) and the NVidia TK1 board (NVIDIA, Santa Clara, CA, USA). Full article
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Open AccessArticle EH-GC: An Efficient and Secure Architecture of Energy Harvesting Green Cloud Infrastructure
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040673
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
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Abstract
Nowadays, the high power consumption of data centers is the biggest challenge to making cloud computing greener. Many researchers are still seeking effective solutions to reduce or harvest the energy produced at data centers. To address this challenge, we propose a green cloud
[...] Read more.
Nowadays, the high power consumption of data centers is the biggest challenge to making cloud computing greener. Many researchers are still seeking effective solutions to reduce or harvest the energy produced at data centers. To address this challenge, we propose a green cloud infrastructure which provides security and efficiency based on energy harvesting (EH-GC). The EH-GC is basically focused on harvesting the heat energy produced by data centers in the Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) infrastructure. A pyroelectric material is used to generate the electric current from heat using the Olsen cycle. In order to achieve efficient green cloud computing, the architecture utilizes a genetic algorithm for proper virtual machine allocation, taking into consideration less Service Level Agreement (SLA) violations. The architecture utilizes Multivariate Correlation Analysis (MCA) correlation analysis based on a triangular map area generation to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks in the data center layer of the IaaS. Finally, the experimental analysis is explained based on the energy parameter, which proves that our model is efficient and secure, and that it efficiently reuses the energy emitted from the data center. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exclusive Contexts Resolver: A Low-Power Sensing Management System for Sustainable Context-Awareness in Exclusive Contexts
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040647
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
PDF Full-text (7145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several studies focus on sustainable context-awareness of a mobile device to which power is supplied from a limited battery. However, the existing studies did not consider an unnecessary sensing operation in exclusive contexts wherein it is not possible for the exclusive contexts to
[...] Read more.
Several studies focus on sustainable context-awareness of a mobile device to which power is supplied from a limited battery. However, the existing studies did not consider an unnecessary sensing operation in exclusive contexts wherein it is not possible for the exclusive contexts to logically exist at the same time and are instead occasionally inferred practically due to the inaccuracy of the context-awareness. Simultaneously inferring two or more exclusive contexts is semantically meaningless and leads to inefficient power consumption, and thus, it is necessary to handle this problem for sustainable context-awareness. To this end, in the present study, an exclusive contexts resolver (ExCore), which is a low-power sensing management system, is proposed for sustainable context-awareness in exclusive contexts. The ExCore takes the sensor behavior model to the developer and identifies the sensing operation inferring the exclusive contexts through unnecessary sensing operation search rules. It also generates low-power sensing operations. The application and middleware were evaluated with the low-power sensing operations generated by the ExCore. The results indicated an average power efficiency improvement of 12–62% depending on the test scenario. The ExCore helps application developers or middleware developers in providing sustainable context-aware service in exclusive contexts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cooperative Downlink Listening for Low-Power Long-Range Wide-Area Network
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040627
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 17 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3022 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, the development of the Internet of Things (IoT) applications has become more active with the emergence of low-power wide-area network (LPWAN), which has the advantages of low-power and long communication distance. Among the various LPWAN technologies, long-range wide-area network (LoRaWAN, or LoRa)
[...] Read more.
Recently, the development of the Internet of Things (IoT) applications has become more active with the emergence of low-power wide-area network (LPWAN), which has the advantages of low-power and long communication distance. Among the various LPWAN technologies, long-range wide-area network (LoRaWAN, or LoRa) is considered as the most mature technology. However, since LoRa performs uplink-oriented communication to increase energy efficiency, there is a restriction on the downlink function from the network server to the end devices. In this paper, we propose cooperative downlink listening to solve the fundamental problem of LoRa. In particular, the proposed scheme can be extended to various communication models such as groupcasting and geocasting by combining with the data-centric model. Experiments also show that the proposed technology not only significantly reduces network traffic compared to the LoRa standard, but also guarantees maximum energy efficiency of the LoRa. Full article
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