E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Sensor Algorithms"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Costas Busch (Website)

Computer Science and Engineering Division, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Fax: +1 225 578 1465
Interests: distributed algorithms and data structures; communication algorithms; wireless and sensor networks; algorithmic game theory

Keywords

  • sensor algorithms

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (42 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-42
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Wavelet Analysis for Wind Fields Estimation
Sensors 2010, 10(6), 5994-6016; doi:10.3390/s100605994
Received: 11 May 2010 / Revised: 30 May 2010 / Accepted: 5 June 2010 / Published: 14 June 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (5580 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wind field analysis from synthetic aperture radar images allows the estimation of wind direction and speed based on image descriptors. In this paper, we propose a framework to automate wind direction retrieval based on wavelet decomposition associated with spectral processing. We extend [...] Read more.
Wind field analysis from synthetic aperture radar images allows the estimation of wind direction and speed based on image descriptors. In this paper, we propose a framework to automate wind direction retrieval based on wavelet decomposition associated with spectral processing. We extend existing undecimated wavelet transform approaches, by including à trous with B3 spline scaling function, in addition to other wavelet bases as Gabor and Mexican-hat. The purpose is to extract more reliable directional information, when wind speed values range from 5 to 10 ms−1. Using C-band empirical models, associated with the estimated directional information, we calculate local wind speed values and compare our results with QuikSCAT scatterometer data. The proposed approach has potential application in the evaluation of oil spills and wind farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Design, Control and in Situ Visualization of Gas Nitriding Processes
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 218-240; doi:10.3390/s100100218
Received: 16 November 2009 / Revised: 15 December 2009 / Accepted: 20 December 2009 / Published: 28 December 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3620 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The article presents a complex system of design, in situ visualization and control of the commonly used surface treatment process: the gas nitriding process. In the computer design conception, analytical mathematical models and artificial intelligence methods were used. As a result, possibilities [...] Read more.
The article presents a complex system of design, in situ visualization and control of the commonly used surface treatment process: the gas nitriding process. In the computer design conception, analytical mathematical models and artificial intelligence methods were used. As a result, possibilities were obtained of the poly-optimization and poly-parametric simulations of the course of the process combined with a visualization of the value changes of the process parameters in the function of time, as well as possibilities to predict the properties of nitrided layers. For in situ visualization of the growth of the nitrided layer, computer procedures were developed which make use of the results of the correlations of direct and differential voltage and time runs of the process result sensor (magnetic sensor), with the proper layer growth stage. Computer procedures make it possible to combine, in the duration of the process, the registered voltage and time runs with the models of the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Data Centric Sensor Stream Reduction for Real-Time Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9666-9688; doi:10.3390/s91209666
Received: 13 October 2009 / Revised: 9 November 2009 / Accepted: 13 November 2009 / Published: 2 December 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (852 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents a data-centric strategy to meet deadlines in soft real-time applications in wireless sensor networks. This strategy considers three main aspects: (i) The design of real-time application to obtain the minimum deadlines; (ii) An analytic model to estimate the ideal [...] Read more.
This work presents a data-centric strategy to meet deadlines in soft real-time applications in wireless sensor networks. This strategy considers three main aspects: (i) The design of real-time application to obtain the minimum deadlines; (ii) An analytic model to estimate the ideal sample size used by data-reduction algorithms; and (iii) Two data-centric stream-based sampling algorithms to perform data reduction whenever necessary. Simulation results show that our data-centric strategies meet deadlines without loosing data representativeness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Remote Sensing Images Using Multifractal Analysis
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8669-8683; doi:10.3390/s91108669
Received: 3 August 2009 / Revised: 10 October 2009 / Accepted: 21 October 2009 / Published: 29 October 2009
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Satellite remote sensing (RS) is an important contributor to Earth observation, providing various kinds of imagery every day, but low spatial resolution remains a critical bottleneck in a lot of applications, restricting higher spatial resolution analysis (e.g., intraurban). In this study, a [...] Read more.
Satellite remote sensing (RS) is an important contributor to Earth observation, providing various kinds of imagery every day, but low spatial resolution remains a critical bottleneck in a lot of applications, restricting higher spatial resolution analysis (e.g., intraurban). In this study, a multifractal-based super-resolution reconstruction method is proposed to alleviate this problem. The multifractal characteristic is common in Nature. The self-similarity or self-affinity presented in the image is useful to estimate details at larger and smaller scales than the original. We first look for the presence of multifractal characteristics in the images. Then we estimate parameters of the information transfer function and noise of the low resolution image. Finally, a noise-free, spatial resolutionenhanced image is generated by a fractal coding-based denoising and downscaling method. The empirical case shows that the reconstructed super-resolution image performs well indetail enhancement. This method is not only useful for remote sensing in investigating Earth, but also for other images with multifractal characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Distributed Environment Control Using Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks for Lighting Applications
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8593-8609; doi:10.3390/s91108593
Received: 14 September 2009 / Revised: 22 October 2009 / Accepted: 23 October 2009 / Published: 28 October 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2630 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We propose a decentralized algorithm to calculate the control signals for lights in wireless sensor/actuator networks. This algorithm uses an appropriate step size in the iterative process used for quickly computing the control signals. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this [...] Read more.
We propose a decentralized algorithm to calculate the control signals for lights in wireless sensor/actuator networks. This algorithm uses an appropriate step size in the iterative process used for quickly computing the control signals. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this approach compared with the penalty method by using Mote-based mesh sensor networks. The estimation error of the new approach is one-eighth as large as that of the penalty method with one-fifth of its computation time. In addition, we describe our sensor/actuator node for distributed lighting control based on the decentralized algorithm and demonstrate its practical efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Optimal Sensor Location Design for Reliable Fault Detection in Presence of False Alarms
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8579-8592; doi:10.3390/s91108579
Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised: 24 August 2009 / Accepted: 29 September 2009 / Published: 27 October 2009
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To improve fault detection reliability, sensor location should be designed according to an optimization criterion with constraints imposed by issues of detectability and identifiability. Reliability requires the minimization of undetectability and false alarm probability due to random factors on sensor readings, which [...] Read more.
To improve fault detection reliability, sensor location should be designed according to an optimization criterion with constraints imposed by issues of detectability and identifiability. Reliability requires the minimization of undetectability and false alarm probability due to random factors on sensor readings, which is not only related with sensor readings but also affected by fault propagation. This paper introduces the reliability criteria expression based on the missed/false alarm probability of each sensor and system topology or connectivity derived from the directed graph. The algorithm for the optimization problem is presented as a heuristic procedure. Finally, a boiler system is illustrated using the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Collaborative Distributed Scheduling Approaches for Wireless Sensor Network
Sensors 2009, 9(10), 8007-8030; doi:10.3390/s91008007
Received: 4 August 2009 / Revised: 4 September 2009 / Accepted: 29 September 2009 / Published: 13 October 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy constraints restrict the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with battery-powered nodes, which poses great challenges for their large scale application. In this paper, we propose a family of collaborative distributed scheduling approaches (CDSAs) based on the Markov process to reduce [...] Read more.
Energy constraints restrict the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with battery-powered nodes, which poses great challenges for their large scale application. In this paper, we propose a family of collaborative distributed scheduling approaches (CDSAs) based on the Markov process to reduce the energy consumption of a WSN. The family of CDSAs comprises of two approaches: a one-step collaborative distributed approach and a two-step collaborative distributed approach. The approaches enable nodes to learn the behavior information of its environment collaboratively and integrate sleep scheduling with transmission scheduling to reduce the energy consumption. We analyze the adaptability and practicality features of the CDSAs. The simulation results show that the two proposed approaches can effectively reduce nodes’ energy consumption. Some other characteristics of the CDSAs like buffer occupation and packet delay are also analyzed in this paper. We evaluate CDSAs extensively on a 15-node WSN testbed. The test results show that the CDSAs conserve the energy effectively and are feasible for real WSNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle A Radio-Aware Routing Algorithm for Reliable Directed Diffusion in Lossy Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(10), 8047-8072; doi:10.3390/s91008047
Received: 21 July 2009 / Revised: 7 September 2009 / Accepted: 30 September 2009 / Published: 13 October 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2061 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), transmission errors occur frequently due to node failure, battery discharge, contention or interference by objects. Although Directed Diffusion has been considered as a prominent data-centric routing algorithm, it has some weaknesses due to unexpected network errors. In [...] Read more.
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), transmission errors occur frequently due to node failure, battery discharge, contention or interference by objects. Although Directed Diffusion has been considered as a prominent data-centric routing algorithm, it has some weaknesses due to unexpected network errors. In order to address these problems, we proposed a radio-aware routing algorithm to improve the reliability of Directed Diffusion in lossy WSNs. The proposed algorithm is aware of the network status based on the radio information from MAC and PHY layers using a cross-layer design. The cross-layer design can be used to get detailed information about current status of wireless network such as a link quality or transmission errors of communication links. The radio information indicating variant network conditions and link quality was used to determine an alternative route that provides reliable data transmission under lossy WSNs. According to the simulation result, the radio-aware reliable routing algorithm showed better performance in both grid and random topologies with various error rates. The proposed solution suggested the possibility of providing a reliable transmission method for QoS requests in lossy WSNs based on the radio-awareness. The energy and mobility issues will be addressed in the future work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Hybrid Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Event-Driven Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(9), 7287-7307; doi:10.3390/s90907287
Received: 22 July 2009 / Revised: 27 August 2009 / Accepted: 7 September 2009 / Published: 10 September 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Routing is a basic function in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). For these networks, routing algorithms depend on the characteristics of the applications and, consequently, there is no self-contained algorithm suitable for every case. In some scenarios, the network behavior (traffic load) may [...] Read more.
Routing is a basic function in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). For these networks, routing algorithms depend on the characteristics of the applications and, consequently, there is no self-contained algorithm suitable for every case. In some scenarios, the network behavior (traffic load) may vary a lot, such as an event-driven application, favoring different algorithms at different instants. This work presents a hybrid and adaptive algorithm for routing in WSNs, called Multi-MAF, that adapts its behavior autonomously in response to the variation of network conditions. In particular, the proposed algorithm applies both reactive and proactive strategies for routing infrastructure creation, and uses an event-detection estimation model to change between the strategies and save energy. To show the advantages of the proposed approach, it is evaluated through simulations. Comparisons with independent reactive and proactive algorithms show improvements on energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Game and Balance Multicast Architecture Algorithms for Sensor Grid
Sensors 2009, 9(9), 7177-7202; doi:10.3390/s90907177
Received: 20 June 2009 / Accepted: 18 August 2009 / Published: 9 September 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We propose a scheme to attain shorter multicast delay and higher efficiency in the data transfer of sensor grid. Our scheme, in one cluster, seeks the central node, calculates the space and the data weight vectors. Then we try to find a [...] Read more.
We propose a scheme to attain shorter multicast delay and higher efficiency in the data transfer of sensor grid. Our scheme, in one cluster, seeks the central node, calculates the space and the data weight vectors. Then we try to find a new vector composed by linear combination of the two old ones. We use the equal correlation coefficient between the new and old vectors to find the point of game and balance of the space and data factorsbuild a binary simple equation, seek linear parameters, and generate a least weight path tree. We handled the issue from a quantitative way instead of a qualitative way. Based on this idea, we considered the scheme from both the space and data factor, then we built the mathematic model, set up game and balance relationship and finally resolved the linear indexes, according to which we improved the transmission efficiency of sensor grid. Extended simulation results indicate that our scheme attains less average multicast delay and number of links used compared with other well-known existing schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Detection and Classification of Human Body Odor Using an Electronic Nose
Sensors 2009, 9(9), 7234-7249; doi:10.3390/s90907234
Received: 24 June 2009 / Revised: 19 August 2009 / Accepted: 3 September 2009 / Published: 9 September 2009
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An electronic nose (E-nose) has been designed and equipped with software that can detect and classify human armpit body odor. An array of metal oxide sensors was used for detecting volatile organic compounds. The measurement circuit employs a voltage divider resistor to [...] Read more.
An electronic nose (E-nose) has been designed and equipped with software that can detect and classify human armpit body odor. An array of metal oxide sensors was used for detecting volatile organic compounds. The measurement circuit employs a voltage divider resistor to measure the sensitivity of each sensor. This E-nose was controlled by in-house developed software through a portable USB data acquisition card with a principle component analysis (PCA) algorithm implemented for pattern recognition and classification. Because gas sensor sensitivity in the detection of armpit odor samples is affected by humidity, we propose a new method and algorithms combining hardware/software for the correction of the humidity noise. After the humidity correction, the E-nose showed the capability of detecting human body odor and distinguishing the body odors from two persons in a relative manner. The E-nose is still able to recognize people, even after application of deodorant. In conclusion, this is the first report of the application of an E-nose for armpit odor recognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Geometric Modelling Approach to Determining the Best Sensing Coverage for 3-Dimensional Acoustic Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(9), 6764-6794; doi:10.3390/s90906764
Received: 25 June 2009 / Revised: 10 August 2009 / Accepted: 19 August 2009 / Published: 27 August 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2027 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Existing 3-dimensional acoustic target tracking methods that use wired/wireless networked sensor nodes to track targets based on four sensing coverage do not always compute the feasible spatio-temporal information of target objects. To investigate this discrepancy in a formal setting, we propose a [...] Read more.
Existing 3-dimensional acoustic target tracking methods that use wired/wireless networked sensor nodes to track targets based on four sensing coverage do not always compute the feasible spatio-temporal information of target objects. To investigate this discrepancy in a formal setting, we propose a geometric model of the target tracking problem alongside its equivalent geometric dual model that is easier to solve. We then study and prove some properties of dual model by exploiting its relationship with algebra. Based on these properties, we propose a four coverage axis line method based on four sensing coverage and prove that four sensing coverage always yields two dual correct answers; usually one of them is infeasible. By showing that the feasible answer can be only sometimes identified by using a simple time test method such as the one proposed by ourselves, we prove that four sensing coverage fails to always yield the feasible spatiotemporal information of a target object. We further prove that five sensing coverage always gives the feasible position of a target object under certain conditions that are discussed in this paper. We propose three extensions to four coverage axis line method, namely, five coverage extent point method, five coverage extended axis lines method, and five coverage redundant axis lines method. Computation and time complexities of all four proposed methods are equal in the worst cases as well as on average being equal to Θ(1) each. Proposed methods and proved facts about capabilities of sensing coverage degree in this paper can be used in all other methods of acoustic target tracking like Bayesian filtering methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Spatio-Temporal Human Grip Force Analysis via Sensor Arrays
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6330-6345; doi:10.3390/s90806330
Received: 1 July 2009 / Revised: 6 August 2009 / Accepted: 7 August 2009 / Published: 12 August 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (982 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study describes a technique for measuring human grip forces exerted on a cylindrical object via a sensor array. Standardised resistor-based pressure sensor arrays for industrial and medical applications have been available for some time. We used a special 20 mm diameter [...] Read more.
This study describes a technique for measuring human grip forces exerted on a cylindrical object via a sensor array. Standardised resistor-based pressure sensor arrays for industrial and medical applications have been available for some time. We used a special 20 mm diameter grip rod that subjects could either move actively with their fingers in the horizontal direction or exert reactive forces against opposing forces generated in the rod by a linear motor. The sensor array film was attached to the rod by adhesive tape and covered approximately 45 cm2 of the rod surface. The sensor density was 4/cm2 with each sensor having a force resolution of 0.1 N. A scan across all sensors resulted in a corresponding frame containing force values at a frame repetition rate of 150/s. The force value of a given sensor was interpreted as a pixel value resulting in a false-colour image. Based on remote sensed image analysis an algorithm was developed to distinguish significant force-representing pixels from those affected by noise. This allowed tracking of the position of identified fingers in subsequent frames such that spatio-temporal grip force profiles for individual fingers could be derived. Moreover, the algorithm allowed simultaneous measurement of forces exerted without any constraints on the number of fingers or on the position of the fingers. The system is thus well suited for basic and clinical research in human physiology as well as for studies in psychophysics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle An Efficient and Self-Adapting Localization in Static Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6150-6170; doi:10.3390/s90806150
Received: 28 May 2009 / Revised: 24 June 2009 / Accepted: 29 July 2009 / Published: 4 August 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (991 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Localization is one of the most important subjects in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). To reduce the number of beacons and adopt probabilistic methods, some particle filter-based mobile beacon-assisted localization approaches have been proposed, such as Mobile Beacon-assisted Localization (MBL), Adapting MBL (A-MBL), [...] Read more.
Localization is one of the most important subjects in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). To reduce the number of beacons and adopt probabilistic methods, some particle filter-based mobile beacon-assisted localization approaches have been proposed, such as Mobile Beacon-assisted Localization (MBL), Adapting MBL (A-MBL), and the method proposed by Hang et al. Some new significant problems arise in these approaches, however. The first question is which probability distribution should be selected as the dynamic model in the prediction stage. The second is whether the unknown node adopts neighbors’ observation in the update stage. The third is how to find a self-adapting mechanism to achieve more flexibility in the adapting stage. In this paper, we give the theoretical analysis and experimental evaluations to suggest which probability distribution in the dynamic model should be adopted to improve the efficiency in the prediction stage. We also give the condition for whether the unknown node should use the observations from its neighbors to improve the accuracy. Finally, we propose a Self-Adapting Mobile Beacon-assisted Localization (SA-MBL) approach to achieve more flexibility and achieve almost the same performance with A-MBL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle MCBT: Multi-Hop Cluster Based Stable Backbone Trees for Data Collection and Dissemination in WSNs
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6028-6045; doi:10.3390/s90806028
Received: 26 June 2009 / Revised: 9 July 2009 / Accepted: 17 July 2009 / Published: 29 July 2009
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (935 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We propose a stable backbone tree construction algorithm using multi-hop clusters for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The hierarchical cluster structure has advantages in data fusion and aggregation. Energy consumption can be decreased by managing nodes with cluster heads. Backbone nodes, which are [...] Read more.
We propose a stable backbone tree construction algorithm using multi-hop clusters for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The hierarchical cluster structure has advantages in data fusion and aggregation. Energy consumption can be decreased by managing nodes with cluster heads. Backbone nodes, which are responsible for performing and managing multi-hop communication, can reduce the communication overhead such as control traffic and minimize the number of active nodes. Previous backbone construction algorithms, such as Hierarchical Cluster-based Data Dissemination (HCDD) and Multicluster, Mobile, Multimedia radio network (MMM), consume energy quickly. They are designed without regard to appropriate factors such as residual energy and degree (the number of connections or edges to other nodes) of a node for WSNs. Thus, the network is quickly disconnected or has to reconstruct a backbone. We propose a distributed algorithm to create a stable backbone by selecting the nodes with higher energy or degree as the cluster heads. This increases the overall network lifetime. Moreover, the proposed method balances energy consumption by distributing the traffic load among nodes around the cluster head. In the simulation, the proposed scheme outperforms previous clustering schemes in terms of the average and the standard deviation of residual energy or degree of backbone nodes, the average residual energy of backbone nodes after disseminating the sensed data, and the network lifetime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle S3: School Zone Safety System Based on Wireless Sensor Network
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 5968-5988; doi:10.3390/s90805968
Received: 21 May 2009 / Revised: 13 July 2009 / Accepted: 28 July 2009 / Published: 28 July 2009
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (770 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
School zones are areas near schools that have lower speed limits and where illegally parked vehicles pose a threat to school children by obstructing them from the view of drivers. However, these laws are regularly flouted. Thus, we propose a novel wireless [...] Read more.
School zones are areas near schools that have lower speed limits and where illegally parked vehicles pose a threat to school children by obstructing them from the view of drivers. However, these laws are regularly flouted. Thus, we propose a novel wireless sensor network application called School zone Safety System (S3) to help regulate the speed limit and to prevent illegal parking in school zones. S3 detects illegally parked vehicles, and warns the driver and records the license plate number. To reduce the traveling speed of vehicles in a school zone, S3 measures the speed of vehicles and displays the speed to the driver via an LED display, and also captures the image of the speeding vehicle with a speed camera. We developed a state machine based vehicle detection algorithm for S3. From extensive experiments in our testbeds and data from a real school zone, it is shown that the system can detect all kinds of vehicles, and has an accuracy of over 95% for speed measurement. We modeled the battery life time of a sensor node and validated the model with a downscaled measurement; we estimate the battery life time to be over 2 years. We have deployed S3 in 15 school zones in 2007, and we have demonstrated the robustness of S3 by operating them for over 1 year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Intrusion-Aware Alert Validation Algorithm for Cooperative Distributed Intrusion Detection Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 5989-6007; doi:10.3390/s90805989
Received: 24 April 2009 / Revised: 25 June 2009 / Accepted: 17 July 2009 / Published: 28 July 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (543 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly [...] Read more.
Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Oscillation Control Algorithms for Resonant Sensors with Applications to Vibratory Gyroscopes
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 5952-5967; doi:10.3390/s90805952
Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised: 22 July 2009 / Accepted: 27 July 2009 / Published: 27 July 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present two oscillation control algorithms for resonant sensors such as vibratory gyroscopes. One control algorithm tracks the resonant frequency of the resonator and the other algorithm tunes it to the specified resonant frequency by altering the resonator dynamics. Both algorithms maintain [...] Read more.
We present two oscillation control algorithms for resonant sensors such as vibratory gyroscopes. One control algorithm tracks the resonant frequency of the resonator and the other algorithm tunes it to the specified resonant frequency by altering the resonator dynamics. Both algorithms maintain the specified amplitude of oscillations. The stability of each of the control systems is analyzed using the averaging method, and quantitative guidelines are given for selecting the control gains needed to achieve stability. The effects of displacement measurement noise on the accuracy of tracking and estimation of the resonant frequency are also analyzed. The proposed control algorithms are applied to two important problems in a vibratory gyroscope. The first is the leading-following resonator problem in the drive axis of MEMS dual-mass vibratory gyroscope where there is no mechanical linkage between the two proof-masses and the second is the on-line modal frequency matching problem in a general vibratory gyroscope. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control algorithms are effective. They ensure the proof-masses to oscillate in an anti-phase manner with the same resonant frequency and oscillation amplitude in a dual-mass gyroscope, and two modal frequencies to match in a general vibratory gyroscope. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Inertial and Magnetic Sensor Data Compression Considering the Estimation Error
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 5919-5932; doi:10.3390/s90805919
Received: 22 June 2009 / Revised: 15 July 2009 / Accepted: 17 July 2009 / Published: 24 July 2009
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a compression method for inertial and magnetic sensor data, where the compressed data are used to estimate some states. When sensor data are bounded, the proposed compression method guarantees that the compression error is smaller than a prescribed bound. [...] Read more.
This paper presents a compression method for inertial and magnetic sensor data, where the compressed data are used to estimate some states. When sensor data are bounded, the proposed compression method guarantees that the compression error is smaller than a prescribed bound. The manner in which this error bound affects the bit rate and the estimation error is investigated. Through the simulation, it is shown that the estimation error is improved by 18.81% over a test set of 12 cases compared with a filter that does not use the compression error bound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle An Algorithm for Cold Patch Detection in the Sea off Northeast Taiwan Using Multi-Sensor Data
Sensors 2009, 9(7), 5521-5533; doi:10.3390/s90705521
Received: 3 June 2009 / Revised: 1 July 2009 / Accepted: 4 July 2009 / Published: 13 July 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1021 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multi-sensor data from different satellites are used to identify an upwelling area in the sea off northeast Taiwan. Sea surface temperature (SST) data derived from infrared and microwave, as well as sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) data derived from satellite altimeters are [...] Read more.
Multi-sensor data from different satellites are used to identify an upwelling area in the sea off northeast Taiwan. Sea surface temperature (SST) data derived from infrared and microwave, as well as sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) data derived from satellite altimeters are used for this study. An integration filtering algorithm based on SST data is developed for detecting the cold patch induced by the upwelling. The center of the cold patch is identified by the maximum negative deviation relative to the spatial mean of a SST image within the study area and its climatological mean of each pixel. The boundary of the cold patch is found by the largest SST gradient. The along track SSHA data derived from satellite altimeters are then used to verify the detected cold patch. Applying the detecting algorithm, spatial and temporal characteristics and variations of the cold patch are revealed. The cold patch has an average area of 1.92 ´ 104 km2. Its occurrence frequencies are high from June to October and reach a peak in July. The mean SST of the cold patch is 23.8 °C. In addition to the annual and the intraseasonal fluctuation with main peak centered at 60 days, the cold patch also has a variation period of about 4.7 years in the interannual timescale. This implies that the Kuroshio variations and long-term and large scale processes playing roles in modifying the cold patch occurrence frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Study of Alternative GPS Network Meteorological Sensors in Taiwan: Case Studies of the Plum Rains and Typhoon Sinlaku
Sensors 2009, 9(6), 5001-5021; doi:10.3390/s90605001
Received: 11 June 2009 / Revised: 18 June 2009 / Accepted: 19 June 2009 / Published: 24 June 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2035 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plum rains and typhoons are important weather systems in the Taiwan region. They can cause huge economic losses, but they are also considered as important water resources as they strike Taiwan annually and fill the reservoirs around the island. There are many [...] Read more.
Plum rains and typhoons are important weather systems in the Taiwan region. They can cause huge economic losses, but they are also considered as important water resources as they strike Taiwan annually and fill the reservoirs around the island. There are many meteorological sensors available for investigating the characteristics of weather and climate systems. Recently, the use of GPS as an alternative meteorological sensor has become popular due to the catastrophic impact of global climate change. GPS provides meteorological parameters mainly from the atmosphere. Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a proven algorithm that has attracted attention in GPS related studies. This study uses GPS measurements collected at more than fifty reference stations of the e-GPS network in Taiwan. The first data set was collected from June 1st 2008 to June 7th 2008, which corresponds to the middle of the plum rain season in Taiwan. The second data set was collected from September 11th to September 17th 2008 during the landfall of typhoon Sinlaku. The data processing strategy is to process the measurements collected at the reference stations of the e-GPS network using the PPP technique to estimate the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) values of the sites; thus, the correlations between the ZTD values and the variation of rainfall during the plum rains and typhoon are analyzed. In addition, several characteristics of the meteorological events are identified using spatial and temporal analyses of the ZTD values estimated with the GPS network PPP technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle CoCMA: Energy-Efficient Coverage Control in Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Memetic Algorithm
Sensors 2009, 9(6), 4918-4940; doi:10.3390/s90604918
Received: 20 May 2009 / Revised: 14 June 2009 / Accepted: 19 June 2009 / Published: 22 June 2009
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2398 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has drawn much attention in recent years. Given the limited energy for sensor nodes, it is critical to implement WSNs with energy efficiency designs. Sensing coverage in networks, on the other hand, may degrade gradually over [...] Read more.
Deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has drawn much attention in recent years. Given the limited energy for sensor nodes, it is critical to implement WSNs with energy efficiency designs. Sensing coverage in networks, on the other hand, may degrade gradually over time after WSNs are activated. For mission-critical applications, therefore, energy-efficient coverage control should be taken into consideration to support the quality of service (QoS) of WSNs. Usually, coverage-controlling strategies present some challenging problems: (1) resolving the conflicts while determining which nodes should be turned off to conserve energy; (2) designing an optimal wake-up scheme that avoids awakening more nodes than necessary. In this paper, we implement an energy-efficient coverage control in cluster-based WSNs using a Memetic Algorithm (MA)-based approach, entitled CoCMA, to resolve the challenging problems. The CoCMA contains two optimization strategies: a MA-based schedule for sensor nodes and a wake-up scheme, which are responsible to prolong the network lifetime while maintaining coverage preservation. The MA-based schedule is applied to a given WSN to avoid unnecessary energy consumption caused by the redundant nodes. During the network operation, the wake-up scheme awakens sleeping sensor nodes to recover coverage hole caused by dead nodes. The performance evaluation of the proposed CoCMA was conducted on a cluster-based WSN (CWSN) under either a random or a uniform deployment of sensor nodes. Simulation results show that the performance yielded by the combination of MA and wake-up scheme is better than that in some existing approaches. Furthermore, CoCMA is able to activate fewer sensor nodes to monitor the required sensing area.
Source Code Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Applications of Remote Sensing to Alien Invasive Plant Studies
Sensors 2009, 9(6), 4869-4889; doi:10.3390/s90604869
Received: 8 May 2009 / Revised: 3 June 2009 / Accepted: 18 June 2009 / Published: 19 June 2009
Cited by 49 | PDF Full-text (334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biological invasions can affect ecosystems across a wide spectrum of bioclimatic conditions. Therefore, it is often important to systematically monitor the spread of species over a broad region. Remote sensing has been an important tool for large-scale ecological studies in the past [...] Read more.
Biological invasions can affect ecosystems across a wide spectrum of bioclimatic conditions. Therefore, it is often important to systematically monitor the spread of species over a broad region. Remote sensing has been an important tool for large-scale ecological studies in the past three decades, but it was not commonly used to study alien invasive plants until the mid 1990s. We synthesize previous research efforts on remote sensing of invasive plants from spatial, temporal and spectral perspectives. We also highlight a recently developed state-of-the-art image fusion technique that integrates passive and active energies concurrently collected by an imaging spectrometer and a scanning-waveform light detection and ranging (LiDAR) system, respectively. This approach provides a means to detect the structure and functional properties of invasive plants of different canopy levels. Finally, we summarize regional studies of biological invasions using remote sensing, discuss the limitations of remote sensing approaches, and highlight current research needs and future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Optimization-Based Channel Constrained Data Aggregation Routing Algorithms in Multi-Radio Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(6), 4766-4788; doi:10.3390/s90604766
Received: 6 May 2009 / Revised: 5 June 2009 / Accepted: 12 June 2009 / Published: 17 June 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (718 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In wireless sensor networks, data aggregation routing could reduce the number of data transmissions so as to achieve energy efficient transmission. However, data aggregation introduces data retransmission that is caused by co-channel interference from neighboring sensor nodes. This kind of co-channel interference [...] Read more.
In wireless sensor networks, data aggregation routing could reduce the number of data transmissions so as to achieve energy efficient transmission. However, data aggregation introduces data retransmission that is caused by co-channel interference from neighboring sensor nodes. This kind of co-channel interference could result in extra energy consumption and significant latency from retransmission. This will jeopardize the benefits of data aggregation. One possible solution to circumvent data retransmission caused by co-channel interference is to assign different channels to every sensor node that is within each other’s interference range on the data aggregation tree. By associating each radio with a different channel, a sensor node could receive data from all the children nodes on the data aggregation tree simultaneously. This could reduce the latency from the data source nodes back to the sink so as to meet the user’s delay QoS. Since the number of radios on each sensor node and the number of non-overlapping channels are all limited resources in wireless sensor networks, a challenging question here is to minimize the total transmission cost under limited number of non-overlapping channels in multi-radio wireless sensor networks. This channel constrained data aggregation routing problem in multi-radio wireless sensor networks is an NP-hard problem. I first model this problem as a mixed integer and linear programming problem where the objective is to minimize the total transmission subject to the data aggregation routing, channel and radio resources constraints. The solution approach is based on the Lagrangean relaxation technique to relax some constraints into the objective function and then to derive a set of independent subproblems. By optimally solving these subproblems, it can not only calculate the lower bound of the original primal problem but also provide useful information to get the primal feasible solutions. By incorporating these Lagrangean multipliers as the link arc weight, the optimization-based heuristics are proposed to get energy-efficient data aggregation tree with better resource (channel and radio) utilization. From the computational experiments, the proposed optimization-based approach is superior to existing heuristics under all tested cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle RoPEUS: A New Robust Algorithm for Static Positioning in Ultrasonic Systems
Sensors 2009, 9(6), 4211-4229; doi:10.3390/s90604211
Received: 8 April 2009 / Revised: 6 May 2009 / Accepted: 14 May 2009 / Published: 3 June 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (368 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A well known problem for precise positioning in real environments is the presence of outliers in the measurement sample. Its importance is even bigger in ultrasound based systems since this technology needs a direct line of sight between emitters and receivers. Standard [...] Read more.
A well known problem for precise positioning in real environments is the presence of outliers in the measurement sample. Its importance is even bigger in ultrasound based systems since this technology needs a direct line of sight between emitters and receivers. Standard techniques for outlier detection in range based systems do not usually employ robust algorithms, failing when multiple outliers are present. The direct application of standard robust regression algorithms fails in static positioning (where only the current measurement sample is considered) in real ultrasound based systems mainly due to the limited number of measurements and the geometry effects. This paper presents a new robust algorithm, called RoPEUS, based on MM estimation, that follows a typical two-step strategy: 1) a high breakdown point algorithm to obtain a clean sample, and 2) a refinement algorithm to increase the accuracy of the solution. The main modifications proposed to the standard MM robust algorithm are a built in check of partial solutions in the first step (rejecting bad geometries) and the off-line calculation of the scale of the measurements. The algorithm is tested with real samples obtained with the 3D-LOCUS ultrasound localization system in an ideal environment without obstacles. These measurements are corrupted with typical outlying patterns to numerically evaluate the algorithm performance with respect to the standard parity space algorithm. The algorithm proves to be robust under single or multiple outliers, providing similar accuracy figures in all cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Simulation of EO-1 Hyperion Data from ALI Multispectral Data Based on the Spectral Reconstruction Approach
Sensors 2009, 9(4), 3090-3108; doi:10.3390/s90403090
Received: 11 March 2009 / Revised: 16 April 2009 / Accepted: 20 April 2009 / Published: 24 April 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (827 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Data simulation is widely used in remote sensing to produce imagery for a new sensor in the design stage, for scale issues of some special applications, or for testing of novel algorithms. Hyperspectral data could provide more abundant information than traditional multispectral [...] Read more.
Data simulation is widely used in remote sensing to produce imagery for a new sensor in the design stage, for scale issues of some special applications, or for testing of novel algorithms. Hyperspectral data could provide more abundant information than traditional multispectral data and thus greatly extend the range of remote sensing applications. Unfortunately, hyperspectral data are much more difficult and expensive to acquire and were not available prior to the development of operational hyperspectral instruments, while large amounts of accumulated multispectral data have been collected around the world over the past several decades. Therefore, it is reasonable to examine means of using these multispectral data to simulate or construct hyperspectral data, especially in situations where hyperspectral data are necessary but hard to acquire. Here, a method based on spectral reconstruction is proposed to simulate hyperspectral data (Hyperion data) from multispectral Advanced Land Imager data (ALI data). This method involves extraction of the inherent information of source data and reassignment to newly simulated data. A total of 106 bands of Hyperion data were simulated from ALI data covering the same area. To evaluate this method, we compare the simulated and original Hyperion data by visual interpretation, statistical comparison, and classification. The results generally showed good performance of this method and indicated that most bands were well simulated, and the information both preserved and presented well. This makes it possible to simulate hyperspectral data from multispectral data for testing the performance of algorithms, extend the use of multispectral data and help the design of a virtual sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Combining Multiple Algorithms for Road Network Tracking from Multiple Source Remotely Sensed Imagery: a Practical System and Performance Evaluation
Sensors 2009, 9(2), 1237-1258; doi:10.3390/s90201237
Received: 31 October 2008 / Revised: 20 February 2009 / Accepted: 24 February 2009 / Published: 24 February 2009
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (843 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In light of the increasing availability of commercial high-resolution imaging sensors, automatic interpretation tools are needed to extractroad features. Currently, many approaches for road extraction are available, but it is acknowledged that there is no single method that would be successful in [...] Read more.
In light of the increasing availability of commercial high-resolution imaging sensors, automatic interpretation tools are needed to extractroad features. Currently, many approaches for road extraction are available, but it is acknowledged that there is no single method that would be successful in extracting all types of roads from any remotely sensed imagery. In this paper, a novel classification of roads is proposed, based on both the roads’ geometrical, radiometric properties and the characteristics of the sensors. Subsequently, a general road tracking framework is proposed, and one or more suitable road trackers are designed or combined for each type of roads. Extensive experiments are performed to extract roads from aerial/satellite imagery, and the results show that a combination strategy can automatically extract more than 60% of the total roads from very high resolution imagery such as QuickBird and DMC images, with a time-saving of approximately 20%, and acceptable spatial accuracy. It is proven that a combination of multiple algorithms is more reliable, more efficient and more robust for extracting road networks from multiple-source remotely sensed imagery than the individual algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Detection of Seagrass Distribution Changes from 1991 to 2006 in Xincun Bay, Hainan, with Satellite Remote Sensing
Sensors 2009, 9(2), 830-844; doi:10.3390/s90200830
Received: 29 October 2008 / Revised: 12 January 2009 / Accepted: 23 January 2009 / Published: 5 February 2009
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (1044 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Seagrass distribution is a very important index for costal management and protection. Seagrass distribution changes can be used as indexes to analyze the reasons for the changes. In this paper, in situ hyperspectral observation and satellite images of QuickBird, CBERS (China Brazil [...] Read more.
Seagrass distribution is a very important index for costal management and protection. Seagrass distribution changes can be used as indexes to analyze the reasons for the changes. In this paper, in situ hyperspectral observation and satellite images of QuickBird, CBERS (China Brazil Earth Resources Satellite data) and Landsat data were used to retrieve bio-optical models and seagrass (Enhalus acoroides,Thalassia hemperichii) distribution in Xincun Bay, Hainan province, and seagrass distribution changes from 1991 to 2006 were analyzed. Hyperspectral results showed that the spectral bands at 555, 635, 650 and 675 nm are sensitive to leaf area index (LAI). Seagrass detection with QuickBird was more accurate than that with Landsat TM and CBERS; five classes could be classified clearly and used as correction for seagrass remote sensing data from Landsat TM and CBERS. In order to better describe seagrass distribution changes, the seagrass distribution area was divided as three regions: region A connected with region B in 1991, however it separated in 1999 and was wholly separated in 2001; seagrass in region C shrank gradually and could not be detected in 2006. Analysis of the reasons for seagrass reduction indicated it was mainly affected by aquaculture and typhoons and in recent years, by land use changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Bayesian Algorithm Implementation in a Real Time Exposure Assessment Model on Benzene with Calculation of Associated Cancer Risks
Sensors 2009, 9(2), 731-755; doi:10.3390/s90200731
Received: 7 November 2008 / Revised: 5 January 2009 / Accepted: 12 January 2009 / Published: 2 February 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the current study was the development of a reliable modeling platform to calculate in real time the personal exposure and the associated health risk for filling station employees evaluating current environmental parameters (traffic, meteorological and amount of fuel traded) [...] Read more.
The objective of the current study was the development of a reliable modeling platform to calculate in real time the personal exposure and the associated health risk for filling station employees evaluating current environmental parameters (traffic, meteorological and amount of fuel traded) determined by the appropriate sensor network. A set of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) was developed to predict benzene exposure pattern for the filling station employees. Furthermore, a Physiology Based Pharmaco-Kinetic (PBPK) risk assessment model was developed in order to calculate the lifetime probability distribution of leukemia to the employees, fed by data obtained by the ANN model. Bayesian algorithm was involved in crucial points of both model sub compartments. The application was evaluated in two filling stations (one urban and one rural). Among several algorithms available for the development of the ANN exposure model, Bayesian regularization provided the best results and seemed to be a promising technique for prediction of the exposure pattern of that occupational population group. On assessing the estimated leukemia risk under the scope of providing a distribution curve based on the exposure levels and the different susceptibility of the population, the Bayesian algorithm was a prerequisite of the Monte Carlo approach, which is integrated in the PBPK-based risk model. In conclusion, the modeling system described herein is capable of exploiting the information collected by the environmental sensors in order to estimate in real time the personal exposure and the resulting health risk for employees of gasoline filling stations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle HyBloc: Localization in Sensor Networks with Adverse Anchor Placement
Sensors 2009, 9(1), 253-280; doi:10.3390/s90100253
Received: 13 October 2008 / Revised: 18 December 2008 / Accepted: 4 January 2009 / Published: 8 January 2009
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To determine the geographical positions of sensors, numerous localization algorithms have been proposed in recent years. The positions of sensors are inferred from the connectivity between sensors and a set of nodes called anchors which know their precise locations. We investigate the [...] Read more.
To determine the geographical positions of sensors, numerous localization algorithms have been proposed in recent years. The positions of sensors are inferred from the connectivity between sensors and a set of nodes called anchors which know their precise locations. We investigate the effect of adverse placement and density of anchors on the accuracies of different algorithms. We develop an algorithm called HyBrid Localization (HyBloc) to provide reliable localization service with a limited number of clustered anchors. HyBloc is distributed in nature with reasonable message overhead. Through simulations, we demonstrate that HyBloc provides more accurate location estimates than some existing distributed algorithms when there are only a few anchors. HyBloc also performs well when anchors are clustered together. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle A Localized Coverage Preserving Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(1), 281-302; doi:10.3390/s90100281
Received: 1 September 2008 / Revised: 27 November 2008 / Accepted: 15 December 2008 / Published: 8 January 2009
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In a randomly deployed and large scale wireless sensor network, coverage-redundant nodes consume much unnecessary energy. As a result, turning off these redundant nodes can prolong the network lifetime, while maintaining the degree of sensing coverage with a limited number of on-duty [...] Read more.
In a randomly deployed and large scale wireless sensor network, coverage-redundant nodes consume much unnecessary energy. As a result, turning off these redundant nodes can prolong the network lifetime, while maintaining the degree of sensing coverage with a limited number of on-duty nodes. None of the off-duty eligibility rules in the literature, however, are sufficient and necessary conditions for eligible nodes. Hence redundancy or blind points might be incurred. In this paper we propose a complete Eligibility Rule based on Perimeter Coverage (ERPC) for a node to determine its eligibility for sleeping. ERPC has a computational complexity of O(N2log(N)), lower than the eligibility rule in the Coverage Control Protocol (CCP), O(N3), where N is the number of neighboring nodes. We then present a Coverage Preserving Protocol (CPP) to schedule the work state of eligible nodes. The main advantage of CPP over the Ottawa protocol lies in its ability to configure the network to any specific coverage degree, while the Ottawa protocol does not support different coverage configuration. Moreover, as a localized protocol, CPP has better adaptability to dynamic topologies than centralized protocols. Simulation results indicate that CPP can preserve network coverage with fewer active nodes than the Ottawa protocol. In addition, CPP is capable of identifying all the eligible nodes exactly while the CCP protocol might result in blind points due to error decisions. Quantitative analysis and experiments demonstrate that CPP can extend the network lifetime significantly while maintaining a given coverage degree. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessCommunication Algorithmic Foundation of Spectral Rarefaction for Measuring Satellite Imagery Heterogeneity at Multiple Spatial Scales
Sensors 2009, 9(1), 303-310; doi:10.3390/s90100303
Received: 4 December 2008 / Revised: 24 December 2008 / Accepted: 24 December 2008 / Published: 8 January 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Measuring heterogeneity in satellite imagery is an important task to deal with. Most measures of spectral diversity have been based on Shannon Information theory. However, this approach does not inherently address different scales, ranging from local (hereafter referred to alpha diversity) to [...] Read more.
Measuring heterogeneity in satellite imagery is an important task to deal with. Most measures of spectral diversity have been based on Shannon Information theory. However, this approach does not inherently address different scales, ranging from local (hereafter referred to alpha diversity) to global scales (gamma diversity). The aim of this paper is to propose a method for measuring spectral heterogeneity at multiple scales based on rarefaction curves. An algorithmic solution of rarefaction applied to image pixel values (Digital Numbers, DNs) is provided and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Objective Error Criterion for Evaluation of Mapping Accuracy Based on Sensor Time-of-Flight Measurements
Sensors 2008, 8(12), 8248-8261; doi:10.3390/s8128248
Received: 24 September 2008 / Revised: 2 December 2007 / Accepted: 2 December 2008 / Published: 15 December 2008
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (675 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An objective error criterion is proposed for evaluating the accuracy of maps of unknown environments acquired by making range measurements with different sensing modalities and processing them with different techniques. The criterion can also be used for the assessment of goodness of [...] Read more.
An objective error criterion is proposed for evaluating the accuracy of maps of unknown environments acquired by making range measurements with different sensing modalities and processing them with different techniques. The criterion can also be used for the assessment of goodness of fit of curves or shapes fitted to map points. A demonstrative example from ultrasonic mapping is given based on experimentally acquired time-of-flight measurements and compared with a very accurate laser map, considered as absolute reference. The results of the proposed criterion are compared with the Hausdorff metric and the median error criterion results. The error criterion is sufficiently general and flexible that it can be applied to discrete point maps acquired with other mapping techniques and sensing modalities as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle High Precision Signal Processing Algorithm for White Light Interferometry
Sensors 2008, 8(12), 7609-7635; doi:10.3390/s8127609
Received: 22 April 2008 / Revised: 7 November 2008 / Accepted: 7 November 2008 / Published: 1 December 2008
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new signal processing algorithm for absolute temperature measurement using white light interferometry has been proposed and investigated theoretically. The proposed algorithm determines the phase delay of an interferometer with very high precision (<< one fringe) by identifying the zero order fringe peak of cross-correlation of two fringe scans of white light interferometer. The algorithm features cross-correlation of interferometer fringe scans, hypothesis testing and fine tuning. The hypothesis test looks for a zero order fringe peak candidate about which the cross-correlation is symmetric minimizing the uncertainty of mis-identification. Fine tuning provides the proposed algorithm with high precision subsample resolution phase delay estimation capability. The shot noise limited performance of the proposed algorithm has been analyzed using computer simulations. Root-mean-square (RMS) phase error of the estimated zero order fringe peak has been calculated for the changes of three different parameters (SNR, fringe scan sample rate, coherence length of light source). Computer simulations showed that the proposed signal processing algorithm identified the zero order fringe peak with a miss rate of 3 x 10-4 at 31 dB SNR and the extrapolated miss rate at 35 dB was 3 x 10-8. Also, at 35 dB SNR, RMS phase error less than 10-3 fringe was obtained. The proposed signal processing algorithm uses a software approach that is potentially inexpensive, simple and fast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Microwave Imaging of Cotton Bales
Sensors 2008, 8(11), 7241-7258; doi:10.3390/s8117241
Received: 22 August 2008 / Revised: 6 November 2008 / Accepted: 13 November 2008 / Published: 14 November 2008
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Modern moisture restoration systems are increasingly capable of adding water to cotton bales. However, research has identified large variations in internal moisture within bales that are not readily monitored by current systems. While microwave moisture sensing systems can measure average bale moisture, this can be deceptive where water is unevenly distributed. In some cases, localized internal moisture levels exceed 7.5%, the upper safe limit for cotton bale storage, as determined by the USDA, as above this level, bales degrade and lose value. A high proportion of stored bales containing excess moisture have been discovered throughout the US in increasing numbers over the past several seasons, making the detection and prevention of this occurrence a critical goal. Previous research by the authors resulted in the development of microwave moisture-sensing technology. The current study examines an extension to this technology to allow for detailed cotton bale moisture imaging. The new technique incorporates a narrow beam imaging antenna coupled to a tomographic imaging algorithm. The imaging technique was able to resolve small (< 1 cm) high-permittivity structures against a low permittivity background. Moreover, the system was able to identify structures of known permittivity with high accuracy (coefficient of determination (r2) > 0.99). In preliminary testing on a wet commercial UD bale, the technique was able to accurately image and resolve the location of the pre-placed internal wet layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Effect of External Vibration on PZT Impedance Signature
Sensors 2008, 8(11), 6846-6859; doi:10.3390/s8116846
Received: 8 August 2008 / Revised: 24 October 2008 / Accepted: 31 October 2008 / Published: 1 November 2008
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Piezoelectric ceramic Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) transducers, working on the principle of electromechanical impedance (EMI), are increasingly applied for structural health monitoring (SHM) in aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering. The PZT transducers are usually surface bonded to or embedded in a structure [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric ceramic Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) transducers, working on the principle of electromechanical impedance (EMI), are increasingly applied for structural health monitoring (SHM) in aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering. The PZT transducers are usually surface bonded to or embedded in a structure and subjected to actuation so as to interrogate the structure at the desired frequency range. The interrogation results in the electromechanical admittance (inverse of EMI) signatures which can be used to estimate the structural health or integrity according to the changes of the signatures. In the existing EMI method, the monitored structure is only excited by the PZT transducers for the interrogating of EMI signature, while the vibration of the structure caused by the external excitations other than the PZT actuation is not considered. However, many structures work under vibrations in practice. To monitor such structures, issues related to the effects of vibration on the EMI signature need to be addressed because these effects may lead to misinterpretation of the structural health. This paper develops an EMI model for beam structures, which takes into account the effect of beam vibration caused by the external excitations. An experimental study is carried out to verify the theoretical model. A lab size specimen with different external excitations is tested and the effect of vibration on EMI signature is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Optimization of Single-Sensor Two-State Hot-Wire Anemometer Transmission Bandwidth
Sensors 2008, 8(10), 6747-6760; doi:10.3390/s8106747
Received: 1 September 2008 / Revised: 10 October 2008 / Accepted: 24 October 2008 / Published: 28 October 2008
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hot-wire anemometric measurements of non-isothermal flows require the use of thermal compensation or correction circuitry. One possible solution is a two-state hot-wire anemometer that uses the cyclically changing heating level of a single sensor. The area in which flow velocity and fluid [...] Read more.
Hot-wire anemometric measurements of non-isothermal flows require the use of thermal compensation or correction circuitry. One possible solution is a two-state hot-wire anemometer that uses the cyclically changing heating level of a single sensor. The area in which flow velocity and fluid temperature can be measured is limited by the dimensions of the sensor’s active element. The system is designed to measure flows characterized by high velocity and temperature gradients, although its transmission bandwidth is very limited. In this study, we propose a method to optimize the two-state hot-wire anemometer transmission bandwidth. The method is based on the use of a specialized constanttemperature system together with variable dynamic parameters. It is also based on a suitable measurement cycle paradigm. Analysis of the method was undertaken using model testing. Our results reveal a possible significant broadening of the two-state hot-wire anemometer's transmission bandwidth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Development of Light Powered Sensor Networks for Thermal Comfort Measurement
Sensors 2008, 8(10), 6417-6432; doi:10.3390/s8106417
Received: 2 September 2008 / Revised: 6 October 2008 / Accepted: 13 October 2008 / Published: 16 October 2008
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2355 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent technological advances in wireless communications have enabled easy installation of sensor networks with air conditioning equipment control applications. However, the sensor node power supply, through either power lines or battery power, still presents obstacles to the distribution of the sensing systems. [...] Read more.
Recent technological advances in wireless communications have enabled easy installation of sensor networks with air conditioning equipment control applications. However, the sensor node power supply, through either power lines or battery power, still presents obstacles to the distribution of the sensing systems. In this study, a novel sensor network, powered by the artificial light, was constructed to achieve wireless power transfer and wireless data communications for thermal comfort measurements. The sensing node integrates an IC-based temperature sensor, a radiation thermometer, a relative humidity sensor, a micro machined flow sensor and a microprocessor for predicting mean vote (PMV) calculation. The 935 MHz band RF module was employed for the wireless data communication with a specific protocol based on a special energy beacon enabled mode capable of achieving zero power consumption during the inactive periods of the nodes. A 5W spotlight, with a dual axis tilt platform, can power the distributed nodes over a distance of up to 5 meters. A special algorithm, the maximum entropy method, was developed to estimate the sensing quantity of climate parameters if the communication module did not receive any response from the distributed nodes within a certain time limit. The light-powered sensor networks were able to gather indoor comfort-sensing index levels in good agreement with the comfort-sensing vote (CSV) preferred by a human being and the experimental results within the environment suggested that the sensing system could be used in air conditioning systems to implement a comfort-optimal control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Understanding of Coupled Terrestrial Carbon, Nitrogen and Water Dynamics—An Overview
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8624-8657; doi:10.3390/s91108624
Received: 20 August 2009 / Revised: 12 October 2009 / Accepted: 26 October 2009 / Published: 29 October 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coupled terrestrial carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and hydrological processes play a crucial role in the climate system, providing both positive and negative feedbacks to climate change. In this review we summarize published research results to gain an increased understanding of the dynamics [...] Read more.
Coupled terrestrial carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and hydrological processes play a crucial role in the climate system, providing both positive and negative feedbacks to climate change. In this review we summarize published research results to gain an increased understanding of the dynamics between vegetation and atmosphere processes. A variety of methods, including monitoring (e.g., eddy covariance flux tower, remote sensing, etc.) and modeling (i.e., ecosystem, hydrology and atmospheric inversion modeling) the terrestrial carbon and water budgeting, are evaluated and compared. We highlight two major research areas where additional research could be focused: (i) Conceptually, the hydrological and biogeochemical processes are closely linked, however, the coupling processes between terrestrial C, N and hydrological processes are far from well understood; and (ii) there are significant uncertainties in estimates of the components of the C balance, especially at landscape and regional scales. To address these two questions, a synthetic research framework is needed which includes both bottom-up and top-down approaches integrating scalable (footprint and ecosystem) models and a spatially nested hierarchy of observations which include multispectral remote sensing, inventories, existing regional clusters of eddy-covariance flux towers and CO2 mixing ratio towers and chambers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Figures

Open AccessReview Advances in Multi-Sensor Data Fusion: Algorithms and Applications
Sensors 2009, 9(10), 7771-7784; doi:10.3390/s91007771
Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised: 13 August 2009 / Accepted: 17 September 2009 / Published: 30 September 2009
Cited by 66 | PDF Full-text (626 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the development of satellite and remote sensing techniques, more and more image data from airborne/satellite sensors have become available. Multi-sensor image fusion seeks to combine information from different images to obtain more inferences than can be derived from a single sensor. [...] Read more.
With the development of satellite and remote sensing techniques, more and more image data from airborne/satellite sensors have become available. Multi-sensor image fusion seeks to combine information from different images to obtain more inferences than can be derived from a single sensor. In image-based application fields, image fusion has emerged as a promising research area since the end of the last century. The paper presents an overview of recent advances in multi-sensor satellite image fusion. Firstly, the most popular existing fusion algorithms are introduced, with emphasis on their recent improvements. Advances in main applications fields in remote sensing, including object identification, classification, change detection and maneuvering targets tracking, are described. Both advantages and limitations of those applications are then discussed. Recommendations are addressed, including: (1) Improvements of fusion algorithms; (2) Development of “algorithm fusion” methods; (3) Establishment of an automatic quality assessment scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessReview Sun Tracking Systems: A Review
Sensors 2009, 9(5), 3875-3890; doi:10.3390/s90503875
Received: 14 April 2009 / Revised: 6 May 2009 / Accepted: 15 May 2009 / Published: 20 May 2009
Cited by 68 | PDF Full-text (824 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun’s position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems [...] Read more.
The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun’s position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 20 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the sun tracking system field and then describes some of the more significant proposals for closed-loop and open-loop types of sun tracking systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessReview Clock Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks: An Overview
Sensors 2009, 9(1), 56-85; doi:10.3390/s90100056
Received: 19 November 2008 / Revised: 15 December 2008 / Accepted: 5 January 2009 / Published: 6 January 2009
Cited by 73 | PDF Full-text (659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of tiny, low-cost, low-power and multifunctional sensor nodes equipped with sensing, data processing, and communicating components, have been made possible by the recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) assume a collection of such tiny sensing [...] Read more.
The development of tiny, low-cost, low-power and multifunctional sensor nodes equipped with sensing, data processing, and communicating components, have been made possible by the recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) assume a collection of such tiny sensing devices connected wirelessly and which are used to observe and monitor a variety of phenomena in the real physical world. Many applications based on these WSNs assume local clocks at each sensor node that need to be synchronized to a common notion of time. This paper reviews the existing clock synchronization protocols for WSNs and the methods of estimating clock offset and clock skew in the most representative clock synchronization protocols for WSNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Sensors Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
sensors@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Sensors
Back to Top