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Sensors 2009, 9(10), 8047-8072; doi:10.3390/s91008047
Article

A Radio-Aware Routing Algorithm for Reliable Directed Diffusion in Lossy Wireless Sensor Networks

1
, 2,*  and 1
Received: 21 July 2009; in revised form: 7 September 2009 / Accepted: 30 September 2009 / Published: 13 October 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
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Abstract: In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), transmission errors occur frequently due to node failure, battery discharge, contention or interference by objects. Although Directed Diffusion has been considered as a prominent data-centric routing algorithm, it has some weaknesses due to unexpected network errors. In order to address these problems, we proposed a radio-aware routing algorithm to improve the reliability of Directed Diffusion in lossy WSNs. The proposed algorithm is aware of the network status based on the radio information from MAC and PHY layers using a cross-layer design. The cross-layer design can be used to get detailed information about current status of wireless network such as a link quality or transmission errors of communication links. The radio information indicating variant network conditions and link quality was used to determine an alternative route that provides reliable data transmission under lossy WSNs. According to the simulation result, the radio-aware reliable routing algorithm showed better performance in both grid and random topologies with various error rates. The proposed solution suggested the possibility of providing a reliable transmission method for QoS requests in lossy WSNs based on the radio-awareness. The energy and mobility issues will be addressed in the future work.
Keywords: WSNs; lossy WSNs; radio-aware; directed diffusion; routing algorithm; reliability; cross-layer WSNs; lossy WSNs; radio-aware; directed diffusion; routing algorithm; reliability; cross-layer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, Y.-P.; Jung, E.; Park, Y.-J. A Radio-Aware Routing Algorithm for Reliable Directed Diffusion in Lossy Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2009, 9, 8047-8072.

AMA Style

Kim Y-P, Jung E, Park Y-J. A Radio-Aware Routing Algorithm for Reliable Directed Diffusion in Lossy Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors. 2009; 9(10):8047-8072.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Yong-Pyo; Jung, Euihyun; Park, Yong-Jin. 2009. "A Radio-Aware Routing Algorithm for Reliable Directed Diffusion in Lossy Wireless Sensor Networks." Sensors 9, no. 10: 8047-8072.



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