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Bayesian Algorithm Implementation in a Real Time Exposure Assessment Model on Benzene with Calculation of Associated Cancer Risks
European Commission (EC), Joint Research Center (JRC), Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP), Physical and Chemical Exposure Unit (PCE), Ispra (Va), I-21020, Italy
University of Ioannina, Department of Biological Applications and Technologies, Laboratory of Bioinformatics, Greece
University of Ioannina, Department of Physics, Laboratory of Meteorology, Greece
University of Ioannina, Department of Biological Appl. and Technologies, Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, Greece
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2008; in revised form: 5 January 2009 / Accepted: 12 January 2009 / Published: 2 February 2009
Abstract: The objective of the current study was the development of a reliable modeling platform to calculate in real time the personal exposure and the associated health risk for filling station employees evaluating current environmental parameters (traffic, meteorological and amount of fuel traded) determined by the appropriate sensor network. A set of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) was developed to predict benzene exposure pattern for the filling station employees. Furthermore, a Physiology Based Pharmaco-Kinetic (PBPK) risk assessment model was developed in order to calculate the lifetime probability distribution of leukemia to the employees, fed by data obtained by the ANN model. Bayesian algorithm was involved in crucial points of both model sub compartments. The application was evaluated in two filling stations (one urban and one rural). Among several algorithms available for the development of the ANN exposure model, Bayesian regularization provided the best results and seemed to be a promising technique for prediction of the exposure pattern of that occupational population group. On assessing the estimated leukemia risk under the scope of providing a distribution curve based on the exposure levels and the different susceptibility of the population, the Bayesian algorithm was a prerequisite of the Monte Carlo approach, which is integrated in the PBPK-based risk model. In conclusion, the modeling system described herein is capable of exploiting the information collected by the environmental sensors in order to estimate in real time the personal exposure and the resulting health risk for employees of gasoline filling stations.
Keywords: Bayesian algorithm; ANN; PBPK; benzene exposure
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MDPI and ACS Style
Sarigiannis, D.A.; Karakitsios, S.P.; Gotti, A.; Papaloukas, C.L.; Kassomenos, P.A.; Pilidis, G.A. Bayesian Algorithm Implementation in a Real Time Exposure Assessment Model on Benzene with Calculation of Associated Cancer Risks. Sensors 2009, 9, 731-755.
Sarigiannis DA, Karakitsios SP, Gotti A, Papaloukas CL, Kassomenos PA, Pilidis GA. Bayesian Algorithm Implementation in a Real Time Exposure Assessment Model on Benzene with Calculation of Associated Cancer Risks. Sensors. 2009; 9(2):731-755.
Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis A.; Karakitsios, Spyros P.; Gotti, Alberto; Papaloukas, Costas L.; Kassomenos, Pavlos A.; Pilidis, Georgios A. 2009. "Bayesian Algorithm Implementation in a Real Time Exposure Assessment Model on Benzene with Calculation of Associated Cancer Risks." Sensors 9, no. 2: 731-755.