Next Article in Journal
A Mobile Sensor Network System for Monitoring of Unfriendly Environments
Next Article in Special Issue
High Precision Signal Processing Algorithm for White Light Interferometry
Previous Article in Journal
Multifunctional Polypeptide EQCN Sensors: Probing the Cysteamine-Glutathione Film Permeability with Hg(II) Ions
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of External Vibration on PZT Impedance Signature
Sensors 2008, 8(11), 7241-7258; doi:10.3390/s8117241
Article

Microwave Imaging of Cotton Bales

1,*  and 2
Received: 22 August 2008; in revised form: 6 November 2008 / Accepted: 13 November 2008 / Published: 14 November 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [323 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Modern moisture restoration systems are increasingly capable of adding water to cotton bales. However, research has identified large variations in internal moisture within bales that are not readily monitored by current systems. While microwave moisture sensing systems can measure average bale moisture, this can be deceptive where water is unevenly distributed. In some cases, localized internal moisture levels exceed 7.5%, the upper safe limit for cotton bale storage, as determined by the USDA, as above this level, bales degrade and lose value. A high proportion of stored bales containing excess moisture have been discovered throughout the US in increasing numbers over the past several seasons, making the detection and prevention of this occurrence a critical goal. Previous research by the authors resulted in the development of microwave moisture-sensing technology. The current study examines an extension to this technology to allow for detailed cotton bale moisture imaging. The new technique incorporates a narrow beam imaging antenna coupled to a tomographic imaging algorithm. The imaging technique was able to resolve small (< 1 cm) high-permittivity structures against a low permittivity background. Moreover, the system was able to identify structures of known permittivity with high accuracy (coefficient of determination (r2) > 0.99). In preliminary testing on a wet commercial UD bale, the technique was able to accurately image and resolve the location of the pre-placed internal wet layer.
Keywords: Cotton; Moisture; Sensing; Tomography; Inverse Solution; Image processing; Machine vision Cotton; Moisture; Sensing; Tomography; Inverse Solution; Image processing; Machine vision
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Pelletier, M.G.; Barnes, E.M. Microwave Imaging of Cotton Bales. Sensors 2008, 8, 7241-7258.

AMA Style

Pelletier MG, Barnes EM. Microwave Imaging of Cotton Bales. Sensors. 2008; 8(11):7241-7258.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pelletier, Mathew G.; Barnes, Edward M. 2008. "Microwave Imaging of Cotton Bales." Sensors 8, no. 11: 7241-7258.


Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert