Special Issue "Sensor Algorithms"

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A special issue of Algorithms (ISSN 1999-4893).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Costas Busch (Website)

Computer Science and Engineering Division, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Fax: +1 225 578 1465
Interests: distributed algorithms and data structures; communication algorithms; wireless and sensor networks; algorithmic game theory

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Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Methodology, Algorithms, and Emerging Tool for Automated Design of Intelligent Integrated Multi-Sensor Systems
Algorithms 2009, 2(4), 1368-1409; doi:10.3390/a2041368
Received: 25 August 2009 / Revised: 10 October 2009 / Accepted: 12 November 2009 / Published: 18 November 2009
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2034 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The emergence of novel sensing elements, computing nodes, wireless communication and integration technology provides unprecedented possibilities for the design and application of intelligent systems. Each new application system must be designed from scratch, employing sophisticated methods ranging from conventional signal processing to [...] Read more.
The emergence of novel sensing elements, computing nodes, wireless communication and integration technology provides unprecedented possibilities for the design and application of intelligent systems. Each new application system must be designed from scratch, employing sophisticated methods ranging from conventional signal processing to computational intelligence. Currently, a significant part of this overall algorithmic chain of the computational system model still has to be assembled manually by experienced designers in a time and labor consuming process. In this research work, this challenge is picked up and a methodology and algorithms for automated design of intelligent integrated and resource-aware multi-sensor systems employing multi-objective evolutionary computation are introduced. The proposed methodology tackles the challenge of rapid-prototyping of such systems under realization constraints and, additionally, includes features of system instance specific self-correction for sustained operation of a large volume and in a dynamically changing environment. The extension of these concepts to the reconfigurable hardware platform renders so called self-x sensor systems, which stands, e.g., for self-monitoring, -calibrating, -trimming, and -repairing/-healing systems. Selected experimental results prove the applicability and effectiveness of our proposed methodology and emerging tool. By our approach, competitive results were achieved with regard to classification accuracy, flexibility, and design speed under additional design constraints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
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Open AccessArticle Incentive Compatible and Globally Efficient Position Based Routing for Selfish Reverse Multicast in Wireless Sensor Networks
Algorithms 2009, 2(4), 1303-1326; doi:10.3390/a2041303
Received: 31 August 2009 / Revised: 16 September 2009 / Accepted: 29 September 2009 / Published: 14 October 2009
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Abstract
We consider the problem of all-to-one selfish routing in the absence of a payment scheme in wireless sensor networks, where a natural model for cost is the power required to forward, referring to the resulting game as a Locally Minimum Cost Forwarding [...] Read more.
We consider the problem of all-to-one selfish routing in the absence of a payment scheme in wireless sensor networks, where a natural model for cost is the power required to forward, referring to the resulting game as a Locally Minimum Cost Forwarding (LMCF). Our objective is to characterize equilibria and their global costs in terms of stretch and diameter, in particular finding incentive compatible algorithms that are also close to globally optimal. We find that although social costs for equilibria of LMCF exhibit arbitrarily bad worst-case bounds and computational infeasibility of reaching optimal equilibria, there exist greedy and local incentive compatible heuristics achieving near-optimal global costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle RFI Mitigation in Microwave Radiometry Using Wavelets
Algorithms 2009, 2(3), 1248-1262; doi:10.3390/a2031248
Received: 2 August 2009 / Revised: 2 September 2009 / Accepted: 16 September 2009 / Published: 23 September 2009
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The performance of microwave radiometers can be seriously degraded by the presence of radio-frequency interference (RFI). Spurious signals and harmonics from lower frequency bands, spread-spectrum signals overlapping the “protected” band of operation, or out-of-band emissions not properly rejected by the pre-detection filters [...] Read more.
The performance of microwave radiometers can be seriously degraded by the presence of radio-frequency interference (RFI). Spurious signals and harmonics from lower frequency bands, spread-spectrum signals overlapping the “protected” band of operation, or out-of-band emissions not properly rejected by the pre-detection filters due to the finite rejection modify the detected power and the estimated antenna temperature from which the geophysical parameters will be retrieved. In recent years, techniques to detect the presence of RFI have been developed. They include time- and/or frequency domain analyses, or statistical analysis of the received signal which, in the absence of RFI, must be a zero-mean Gaussian process. Current mitigation techniques are mostly based on blanking in the time and/or frequency domains where RFI has been detected. However, in some geographical areas, RFI is so persistent in time that is not possible to acquire RFI-free radiometric data. In other applications such as sea surface salinity retrieval, where the sensitivity of the brightness temperature to salinity is weak, small amounts of RFI are also very difficult to detect and mitigate. In this work a wavelet-based technique is proposed to mitigate RFI (cancel RFI as much as possible). The interfering signal is estimated by using the powerful denoising capabilities of the wavelet transform. The estimated RFI signal is then subtracted from the received signal and a “cleaned” noise signal is obtained, from which the power is estimated later. The algorithm performance as a function of the threshold type, and the threshold selection method, the decomposition level, the wavelet type and the interferenceto-noise ratio is presented. Computational requirements are evaluated in terms of quantization levels, number of operations, memory requirements (sequence length). Even though they are high for today’s technology, the algorithms presented can be applied to recorded data. The results show that even RFI much larger than the noise signal can be very effectively mitigated, well below the noise level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Featured-Based Algorithm for the Automated Registration of Multisensorial / Multitemporal Oceanographic Satellite Imagery
Algorithms 2009, 2(3), 1087-1104; doi:10.3390/a2031087
Received: 11 June 2009 / Revised: 31 August 2009 / Accepted: 3 September 2009 / Published: 8 September 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (709 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spatial registration of multidate or multisensorial images is required for many applications in remote sensing. Automatic image registration, which has been extensively studied in other areas of image processing, is still a complex problem in the framework of remote sensing. In this [...] Read more.
Spatial registration of multidate or multisensorial images is required for many applications in remote sensing. Automatic image registration, which has been extensively studied in other areas of image processing, is still a complex problem in the framework of remote sensing. In this work we explore an alternative strategy for a fully automatic and operational registration system capable of registering multitemporal and multisensorial remote sensing satellite images with high accuracy and avoiding the use of ground control points, exploiting the maximum reliable information in both images (coastlines not occluded by clouds), which have been coarsely geometrically corrected only using an orbital prediction model. The automatic feature-based approach is summarized as follows: i) Reference image coastline extraction; ii) Sensed image gradient energy map estimation and iii) Contour matching, mapping function estimation and transformation of the sensed images. Several experimental results for single sensor imagery (AVHRR/3) and multisensorial imagery (AVHRR/3-SeaWiFS-MODIS-ATSR) from different viewpoints and dates have verified the robustness and accuracy of the proposed automatic registration algorithm, demonstrating its capability of registering satellite images of coastal areas within one pixel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Semi-empirical Algorithm for the Retrieval of Ecology-Relevant Water Constituents in Various Aquatic Environments
Algorithms 2009, 2(1), 470-497; doi:10.3390/a2010470
Received: 27 October 2008 / Revised: 11 January 2009 / Accepted: 25 February 2009 / Published: 10 March 2009
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An advanced operational semi-empirical algorithm for processing satellite remote sensing data in the visible region is described. Based on the Levenberg-Marquardt multivariate optimization procedure, the algorithm is developed for retrieving major water colour producing agents: chlorophyll-a, suspended minerals and dissolved organics. Two [...] Read more.
An advanced operational semi-empirical algorithm for processing satellite remote sensing data in the visible region is described. Based on the Levenberg-Marquardt multivariate optimization procedure, the algorithm is developed for retrieving major water colour producing agents: chlorophyll-a, suspended minerals and dissolved organics. Two assurance units incorporated by the algorithm are intended to flag pixels with inaccurate atmospheric correction and specific hydro-optical properties not covered by the applied hydro-optical model. The hydro-optical model is a set of spectral cross-sections of absorption and backscattering of the colour producing agents. The combination of the optimization procedure and a replaceable hydro-optical model makes the developed algorithm not specific to a particular satellite sensor or a water body. The algorithm performance efficiency is amply illustrated for SeaWiFS, MODIS and MERIS images over a variety of water bodies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Algorithm for Active Suppression of Radiation and Acoustical Scattering Fields by Some Physical Bodies in Liquids
Algorithms 2009, 2(1), 361-397; doi:10.3390/a2010361
Received: 27 October 2008 / Revised: 8 January 2009 / Accepted: 8 January 2009 / Published: 4 March 2009
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Abstract
An algorithm for the suppression of the radiation and scattering fields created by vibration of the smooth closed surface of a body of arbitrary shape placed in a liquid is designed and analytically explored. The frequency range of the suppression allows for [...] Read more.
An algorithm for the suppression of the radiation and scattering fields created by vibration of the smooth closed surface of a body of arbitrary shape placed in a liquid is designed and analytically explored. The frequency range of the suppression allows for both large and small wave sizes on the protected surface. An active control system is designed that consists of: (a) a subsystem for fast formation of a desired distribution of normal oscillatory velocities or displacements (on the basis of pulsed Huygens' sources) and (b) a subsystem for catching and targeting of incident waves on the basis of a grid (one layer) of monopole microphones, surrounding the surface to be protected. The efficiency and stability of the control algorithm are considered. The algorithm forms the control signal during a time much smaller than the minimum time scale of the waves to be damped. The control algorithm includes logical and nonlinear operations, thus excluding interpretation of the control system as a traditional combination of linear electric circuits, where all parameters are constant (in time). This algorithm converts some physical body placed in a liquid into one that is transparent to a special class of incident waves. The active control system needs accurate information on its geometry, but does not need either prior or current information about the vibroacoustical characteristics of the protected surface, which in practical cases represents a vast amount of data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Recognizing Human Activities from Sensors Using Hidden Markov Models Constructed by Feature Selection Techniques
Algorithms 2009, 2(1), 282-300; doi:10.3390/a2010282
Received: 28 November 2008 / Revised: 2 February 2009 / Accepted: 16 February 2009 / Published: 21 February 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper a method for selecting features for Human Activity Recognition from sensors is presented. Using a large feature set that contains features that may describe the activities to recognize, Best First Search and Genetic Algorithms are employed to select the [...] Read more.
In this paper a method for selecting features for Human Activity Recognition from sensors is presented. Using a large feature set that contains features that may describe the activities to recognize, Best First Search and Genetic Algorithms are employed to select the feature subset that maximizes the accuracy of a Hidden Markov Model generated from the subset. A comparative of the proposed techniques is presented to demonstrate their performance building Hidden Markov Models to classify different human activities using video sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Design of Sensor Networks for Chemical Plants Based on Meta-Heuristics
Algorithms 2009, 2(1), 259-281; doi:10.3390/a2010259
Received: 3 November 2008 / Revised: 8 January 2009 / Accepted: 17 February 2009 / Published: 20 February 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (244 KB)
Abstract
In this work the optimal design of sensor networks for chemical plants is addressed using stochastic optimization strategies. The problem consists in selecting the type, number and location of new sensors that provide the required quantity and quality of process information. Ad-hoc [...] Read more.
In this work the optimal design of sensor networks for chemical plants is addressed using stochastic optimization strategies. The problem consists in selecting the type, number and location of new sensors that provide the required quantity and quality of process information. Ad-hoc strategies based on Tabu Search, Scatter Search and Population Based Incremental Learning Algorithms are proposed. Regarding Tabu Search, the intensification and diversification capabilities of the technique are enhanced using Path Relinking. The strategies are applied for solving minimum cost design problems subject to quality constraints on variable estimates, and their performances are compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Modeling Landscape Evapotranspiration by Integrating Land Surface Phenology and a Water Balance Algorithm
Algorithms 2008, 1(2), 52-68; doi:10.3390/a1020052
Received: 19 September 2008 / Accepted: 23 October 2008 / Published: 30 October 2008
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main objective of this study is to present an improved modeling technique called Vegetation ET (VegET) that integrates commonly used water balance algorithms with remotely sensed Land Surface Phenology (LSP) parameter to conduct operational vegetation water balance modeling of rainfed systems [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study is to present an improved modeling technique called Vegetation ET (VegET) that integrates commonly used water balance algorithms with remotely sensed Land Surface Phenology (LSP) parameter to conduct operational vegetation water balance modeling of rainfed systems at the LSP’s spatial scale using readily available global data sets. Evaluation of the VegET model was conducted using Flux Tower data and two-year simulation for the conterminous US. The VegET model is capable of estimating actual evapotranspiration (ETa) of rainfed crops and other vegetation types at the spatial resolution of the LSP on a daily basis, replacing the need to estimate crop- and region-specific crop coefficients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Mathematical Programming Techniques for Sensor Networks
Algorithms 2009, 2(1), 565-581; doi:10.3390/a2010565
Received: 31 October 2008 / Revised: 2 March 2009 / Accepted: 2 March 2009 / Published: 17 March 2009
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a survey describing recent developments in the area of mathematical programming techniques for various types of sensor network applications. We discuss mathematical programming formulations associated with these applications, as well as methods for solving the corresponding problems. We also [...] Read more.
This paper presents a survey describing recent developments in the area of mathematical programming techniques for various types of sensor network applications. We discuss mathematical programming formulations associated with these applications, as well as methods for solving the corresponding problems. We also address some of the challenges arising in this area, including both conceptual and computational aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessReview A Review of Closed-Loop Algorithms for Glycemic Control in the Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes
Algorithms 2009, 2(1), 518-532; doi:10.3390/a2010518
Received: 30 October 2008 / Revised: 23 January 2009 / Accepted: 25 February 2009 / Published: 12 March 2009
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the discovery of insulin came a deeper understanding of therapeutic options for one of the most devastating chronic diseases of the modern era, diabetes mellitus. The use of insulin in the treatment of diabetes, especially in those with severe insulin deficiency [...] Read more.
With the discovery of insulin came a deeper understanding of therapeutic options for one of the most devastating chronic diseases of the modern era, diabetes mellitus. The use of insulin in the treatment of diabetes, especially in those with severe insulin deficiency (type 1 diabetes), with multiple injections or continuous subcutaneous infusion, has been largely successful, but the risk for short term and long term complications remains substantial. Insulin treatment decisions are based on the patient’s knowledge of meal size, exercise plans and the intermittent knowledge of blood glucose values. As such, these are open loop methods that require human input. The idea of closed loop control of diabetes treatment is quite different: automated control of a device that delivers insulin (and possibly glucagon or other medications) and is based on continuous or very frequent glucose measurements. Closed loop insulin control for type 1 diabetes is not new but is far from optimized. The goal of such a system is to avoid short-term complications (hypoglycemia) and long-term complications (diseases of the eyes, kidneys, nerves and cardiovascular system) by mimicking the normal insulin secretion pattern of the pancreatic beta cell. A control system for automated diabetes treatment consists of three major components, (1) a glucose sensing device that serves as the afferent limb of the system; (2) an automated control unit that uses algorithms which acquires sensor input and generates treatment outputs; and (3) a drug delivery device (primarily for delivery of insulin), which serves as the system’s efferent limb. There are several major issues that highlight the difficulty of interacting with the complex unknowns of the biological world. For example, development of accurate continuous glucose monitors is crucial; the state of the art in 2009 is that such devices sometimes experience drift and are intended only to supplement information received from standard intermittent blood glucose data. In addition, it is important to acknowledge that an “automated” closed loop pancreas cannot approach the complexity of the normal human endocrine pancreas, which takes continuous data from substrates, hormones, paracrine compounds and autonomic neural inputs, and in response, secretes four hormones. Another major issue is the substantial absorption/action delay of insulin given by the subcutaneous route. Because of this delay, some researchers have recently given a portion of the meal-related insulin in an open loop manner before the meal and found this hybrid approach to be superior to closed loop control. Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) systems adapted from the industrial sector utilize control algorithms that alter output based on proportional (difference between actual and target levels), derivative (rate of change) and integral (time-related summative) errors in glucose. These algorithms have proven to be very promising in limited clinical trials. Related algorithms include a “fading memory” system that combines the proportional-derivative components of a classic PID system with time-relating decay of input signals that allow greater emphasis on more recent glucose values, a characteristic noted in mammalian beta-cells. Model Predictive Control (MPC) systems are highly adaptive methods that utilize mathematical models based on observations of biological behavior patterns using system identification and are now undergoing testing in humans. The application of further mathematical models, such as fuzzy control and artificial neural networks, are also promising, but are largely clinically untested. In summary, the prospects for closed loop control of glycemia in persons with diabetes have improved considerably. Major limitations include the delayed absorption/action of subcutaneous insulin and the imperfect stability of currently-available continuous glucose sensors. The potential for improved glycemic control in persons with diabetes brings with it the potential for reduction in the frequency of acute and chronic complications of diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessReview A Survey on Position-Based Routing Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks
Algorithms 2009, 2(1), 158-182; doi:10.3390/a2010158
Received: 29 October 2008 / Revised: 17 December 2008 / Accepted: 29 January 2009 / Published: 9 February 2009
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (568 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have attracted much attention in recent years for its unique characteristics and wide use in many different applications. Routing protocol is one of key technologies in WSN. In this paper, the position-based routing protocols are surveyed and classified [...] Read more.
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have attracted much attention in recent years for its unique characteristics and wide use in many different applications. Routing protocol is one of key technologies in WSN. In this paper, the position-based routing protocols are surveyed and classified into four categories: flooding-based, curve-based, grid-based and ant algorithm-based intelligent. To each category, the main contribution of related routing protocols is shown including the relationship among the routing protocols. The different routing algorithms in the same category and the different categories are compared based on popular metrics. Moreover, some open research directions in WSN are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessReview Probabilistic Distributed Algorithms for Energy Efficient Routing and Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks
Algorithms 2009, 2(1), 121-157; doi:10.3390/a2010121
Received: 24 October 2008 / Revised: 30 December 2008 / Accepted: 20 January 2009 / Published: 3 February 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work we focus on the energy efficiency challenge in wireless sensor networks, from both an on-line perspective (related to routing), as well as a network design perspective (related to tracking). We investigate a few representative, important aspects of energy efficiency: [...] Read more.
In this work we focus on the energy efficiency challenge in wireless sensor networks, from both an on-line perspective (related to routing), as well as a network design perspective (related to tracking). We investigate a few representative, important aspects of energy efficiency: a) the robust and fast data propagation b) the problem of balancing the energy dissipation among all sensors in the network and c) the problem of efficiently tracking moving entities in sensor networks. Our work here is a methodological survey of selected results that have already appeared in the related literature. In particular, we investigate important issues of energy optimization, like minimizing the total energy dissipation, minimizing the number of transmissions as well as balancing the energy load to prolong the system’s lifetime. We review characteristic protocols and techniques in the recent literature, including probabilistic forwarding and local optimization methods. We study the problem of localizing and tracking multiple moving targets from a network design perspective i.e. towards estimating the least possible number of sensors, their positions and operation characteristics needed to efficiently perform the tracking task. To avoid an expensive massive deployment, we try to take advantage of possible coverage overlaps over space and time, by introducing a novel combinatorial model that captures such overlaps. Under this model, we abstract the tracking network design problem by a covering combinatorial problem and then design and analyze an efficient approximate method for sensor placement and operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessReview A Survey on Star Identification Algorithms
Algorithms 2009, 2(1), 93-107; doi:10.3390/a2010093
Received: 30 October 2008 / Revised: 13 January 2009 / Accepted: 16 January 2009 / Published: 29 January 2009
Cited by 56 | PDF Full-text (370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The author surveys algorithms used in star identification, commonly used in star trackers to determine the attitude of a spacecraft. Star trackers are a staple of attitude determination systems for most types of satellites. The paper covers: (a) lost-in-space algorithms (when no [...] Read more.
The author surveys algorithms used in star identification, commonly used in star trackers to determine the attitude of a spacecraft. Star trackers are a staple of attitude determination systems for most types of satellites. The paper covers: (a) lost-in-space algorithms (when no a priori attitude information is available), (b) recursive algorithms (when some a priori attitude information is available), and (c) non-dimensional algorithms (when the star tracker calibration is not well-known). The performance of selected algorithms and supporting algorithms are compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessReview Autonomous Vehicles Navigation with Visual Target Tracking: Technical Approaches
Algorithms 2008, 1(2), 153-182; doi:10.3390/a1020153
Received: 31 August 2008 / Revised: 22 November 2008 / Accepted: 28 November 2008 / Published: 15 December 2008
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper surveys the developments of last 10 years in the area of vision based target tracking for autonomous vehicles navigation. First, the motivations and applications of using vision based target tracking for autonomous vehicles navigation are presented in the introduction section. [...] Read more.
This paper surveys the developments of last 10 years in the area of vision based target tracking for autonomous vehicles navigation. First, the motivations and applications of using vision based target tracking for autonomous vehicles navigation are presented in the introduction section. It can be concluded that it is very necessary to develop robust visual target tracking based navigation algorithms for the broad applications of autonomous vehicles. Then this paper reviews the recent techniques in three different categories: vision based target tracking for the applications of land, underwater and aerial vehicles navigation. Next, the increasing trends of using data fusion for visual target tracking based autonomous vehicles navigation are discussed. Through data fusion the tracking performance is improved and becomes more robust. Based on the review, the remaining research challenges are summarized and future research directions are investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessReview Machine Learning: A Crucial Tool for Sensor Design
Algorithms 2008, 1(2), 130-152; doi:10.3390/a1020130
Received: 31 October 2008 / Revised: 21 November 2008 / Accepted: 29 November 2008 / Published: 3 December 2008
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sensors have been widely used for disease diagnosis, environmental quality monitoring, food quality control, industrial process analysis and control, and other related fields. As a key tool for sensor data analysis, machine learning is becoming a core part of novel sensor design. [...] Read more.
Sensors have been widely used for disease diagnosis, environmental quality monitoring, food quality control, industrial process analysis and control, and other related fields. As a key tool for sensor data analysis, machine learning is becoming a core part of novel sensor design. Dividing a complete machine learning process into three steps: data pre-treatment, feature extraction and dimension reduction, and system modeling, this paper provides a review of the methods that are widely used for each step. For each method, the principles and the key issues that affect modeling results are discussed. After reviewing the potential problems in machine learning processes, this paper gives a summary of current algorithms in this field and provides some feasible directions for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessReview A Review of Virtual Sensing Algorithms for Active Noise Control
Algorithms 2008, 1(2), 69-99; doi:10.3390/a1020069
Received: 29 September 2008 / Accepted: 29 October 2008 / Published: 3 November 2008
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (636 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditional local active noise control systems minimise the measured acoustic pressure to generate a zone of quiet at the physical error sensor location. The resulting zone of quiet is generally limited in size and this requires the physical error sensor be placed [...] Read more.
Traditional local active noise control systems minimise the measured acoustic pressure to generate a zone of quiet at the physical error sensor location. The resulting zone of quiet is generally limited in size and this requires the physical error sensor be placed at the desired location of attenuation, which is often inconvenient. To overcome this, a number of virtual sensing algorithms have been developed for active noise control. Using the physical error signal, the control signal and knowledge of the system, these virtual sensing algorithms estimate the error signal at a location that is remote from the physical error sensor, referred to as the virtual location. Instead of minimising the physical error signal, the estimated error signal is minimised with the active noise control system to generate a zone of quiet at the virtual location. This paper will review a number of virtual sensing algorithms developed for active noise control. Additionally, the performance of these virtual sensing algorithms in numerical simulations and in experiments is discussed and compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.


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