Nutrients 2013, 5(10), 4079-4092; doi:10.3390/nu5104079
Article

Impact of Multi-Micronutrient Supplementation on Growth and Morbidity of HIV-Infected South African Children

1 Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8129, Wageningen 6700EV, The Netherlands 2 Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Limpopo, Medunsa Campus, P.O. Box 221, Medunsa 0204, South Africa
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 July 2013; in revised form: 13 September 2013 / Accepted: 16 September 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [402 KB, uploaded 11 October 2013 11:32 CEST]
Abstract: Poor growth, micronutrient deficiencies and episodes of diarrhea and respiratory infections occur frequently in HIV-infected children. We investigated whether multi-micronutrient supplementation would improve the growth performance and reduce the number of episodes of diarrhea and/or of respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected children. In a double-blind randomized trial, HIV-infected South African children aged 4–24 months (n = 201) were assigned to receive multi-micronutrient supplements or placebo daily for six months. The children were assessed for respiratory symptoms or diarrhea bi-weekly; weights and heights were measured monthly. In total, 121 children completed the six month follow up study period (60%). A total of 43 children died; 27 of them had received supplements. This difference in mortality was not statistically significant (p = 0.12). Weight-for-height Z-scores improved significantly (p < 0.05) among children given supplements compared with those given placebo (0.40 (0.09–0.71)) versus −0.04 (−0.39–0.31) (mean (95% CI)). Height-for-age Z-scores did not improve in both treatment groups. The number of monthly episodes of diarrhea in the placebo group (0.36 (0.26–0.46)) was higher (p = 0.09) than in the supplement group (0.25 (0.17–0.33)) and the number of monthly episodes of respiratory symptoms was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among children on placebos (1.01 (0.83–1.79)) than those on supplements (0.66 (0.52–0.80)). Multi-micronutrient supplements significantly improved wasting and reduced the number of episodes of diarrhea and respiratory symptoms.
Keywords: multi-micronutrients; HIV; growth; diarrhea; respiratory infections; children

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mda, S.; Raaij, J.M.A.; Villiers, F.P.R.; Kok, F.J. Impact of Multi-Micronutrient Supplementation on Growth and Morbidity of HIV-Infected South African Children. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4079-4092.

AMA Style

Mda S, Raaij JMA, Villiers FPR, Kok FJ. Impact of Multi-Micronutrient Supplementation on Growth and Morbidity of HIV-Infected South African Children. Nutrients. 2013; 5(10):4079-4092.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mda, Siyazi; Raaij, Joop M.A.; Villiers, François P.R.; Kok, Frans J. 2013. "Impact of Multi-Micronutrient Supplementation on Growth and Morbidity of HIV-Infected South African Children." Nutrients 5, no. 10: 4079-4092.

Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert