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Nutrients 2013, 5(10), 4079-4092; doi:10.3390/nu5104079
Article

Impact of Multi-Micronutrient Supplementation on Growth and Morbidity of HIV-Infected South African Children

1,2,* , 1
, 2
 and 1
Received: 12 July 2013; in revised form: 13 September 2013 / Accepted: 16 September 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
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Abstract: Poor growth, micronutrient deficiencies and episodes of diarrhea and respiratory infections occur frequently in HIV-infected children. We investigated whether multi-micronutrient supplementation would improve the growth performance and reduce the number of episodes of diarrhea and/or of respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected children. In a double-blind randomized trial, HIV-infected South African children aged 4–24 months (n = 201) were assigned to receive multi-micronutrient supplements or placebo daily for six months. The children were assessed for respiratory symptoms or diarrhea bi-weekly; weights and heights were measured monthly. In total, 121 children completed the six month follow up study period (60%). A total of 43 children died; 27 of them had received supplements. This difference in mortality was not statistically significant (p = 0.12). Weight-for-height Z-scores improved significantly (p < 0.05) among children given supplements compared with those given placebo (0.40 (0.09–0.71)) versus −0.04 (−0.39–0.31) (mean (95% CI)). Height-for-age Z-scores did not improve in both treatment groups. The number of monthly episodes of diarrhea in the placebo group (0.36 (0.26–0.46)) was higher (p = 0.09) than in the supplement group (0.25 (0.17–0.33)) and the number of monthly episodes of respiratory symptoms was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among children on placebos (1.01 (0.83–1.79)) than those on supplements (0.66 (0.52–0.80)). Multi-micronutrient supplements significantly improved wasting and reduced the number of episodes of diarrhea and respiratory symptoms.
Keywords: multi-micronutrients; HIV; growth; diarrhea; respiratory infections; children multi-micronutrients; HIV; growth; diarrhea; respiratory infections; children
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mda, S.; Raaij, J.M.A.; Villiers, F.P.R.; Kok, F.J. Impact of Multi-Micronutrient Supplementation on Growth and Morbidity of HIV-Infected South African Children. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4079-4092.

AMA Style

Mda S, Raaij JMA, Villiers FPR, Kok FJ. Impact of Multi-Micronutrient Supplementation on Growth and Morbidity of HIV-Infected South African Children. Nutrients. 2013; 5(10):4079-4092.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mda, Siyazi; Raaij, Joop M.A.; Villiers, François P.R.; Kok, Frans J. 2013. "Impact of Multi-Micronutrient Supplementation on Growth and Morbidity of HIV-Infected South African Children." Nutrients 5, no. 10: 4079-4092.


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