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Molecules 2013, 18(5), 5736-5748; doi:10.3390/molecules18055736

Production of Flavours and Fragrances via Bioreduction of (4R)-(-)-Carvone and (1R)-(-)-Myrtenal by Non-Conventional Yeast Whole-Cells

2,*  and 1,*
1 Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Food Sciences & Industrial Yeasts Collection DBVPG, University of Perugia, Borgo XX Giugno 74, Perugia 06121, Italy 2 Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena & Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 183, Modena 41125, Italy
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2013 / Revised: 29 April 2013 / Accepted: 10 May 2013 / Published: 16 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
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As part of a program aiming at the selection of yeast strains which might be of interest as sources of natural flavours and fragrances, the bioreduction of (4R)-(−)-carvone and (1R)-(−)-myrtenal by whole-cells of non-conventional yeasts (NCYs) belonging to the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Hanseniaspora, Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces, Lindnera, Nakaseomyces, Vanderwaltozyma and Wickerhamomyces was studied. Volatiles produced were sampled by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and the compounds were analysed and identified by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Yields (expressed as % of biotransformation) varied in dependence of the strain. The reduction of both (4R)-(−)-carvone and (1R)-(−)-myrtenal were catalyzed by some ene-reductases (ERs) and/or carbonyl reductases (CRs), which determined the formation of (1R,4R)-dihydrocarvone and (1R)-myrtenol respectively, as main flavouring products. The potential of NCYs as novel whole-cell biocatalysts for selective biotransformation of electron-poor alkenes for producing flavours and fragrances of industrial interest is discussed.
Keywords: biocatalysis; non-conventional yeasts (NCYs); ene-reductases; carbonyl reductases; monoterpenoids; (4R)-(−)-carvone; (1R)-(−)-myrtenal biocatalysis; non-conventional yeasts (NCYs); ene-reductases; carbonyl reductases; monoterpenoids; (4R)-(−)-carvone; (1R)-(−)-myrtenal
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Goretti, M.; Turchetti, B.; Cramarossa, M.R.; Forti, L.; Buzzini, P. Production of Flavours and Fragrances via Bioreduction of (4R)-(-)-Carvone and (1R)-(-)-Myrtenal by Non-Conventional Yeast Whole-Cells. Molecules 2013, 18, 5736-5748.

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