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Molecules 2013, 18(5), 5736-5748; doi:10.3390/molecules18055736
Article

Production of Flavours and Fragrances via Bioreduction of (4R)-(-)-Carvone and (1R)-(-)-Myrtenal by Non-Conventional Yeast Whole-Cells

1
, 1
, 2
, 2,*  and 1,*
Received: 29 March 2013; in revised form: 29 April 2013 / Accepted: 10 May 2013 / Published: 16 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
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Abstract: As part of a program aiming at the selection of yeast strains which might be of interest as sources of natural flavours and fragrances, the bioreduction of (4R)-(−)-carvone and (1R)-(−)-myrtenal by whole-cells of non-conventional yeasts (NCYs) belonging to the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Hanseniaspora, Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces, Lindnera, Nakaseomyces, Vanderwaltozyma and Wickerhamomyces was studied. Volatiles produced were sampled by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and the compounds were analysed and identified by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Yields (expressed as % of biotransformation) varied in dependence of the strain. The reduction of both (4R)-(−)-carvone and (1R)-(−)-myrtenal were catalyzed by some ene-reductases (ERs) and/or carbonyl reductases (CRs), which determined the formation of (1R,4R)-dihydrocarvone and (1R)-myrtenol respectively, as main flavouring products. The potential of NCYs as novel whole-cell biocatalysts for selective biotransformation of electron-poor alkenes for producing flavours and fragrances of industrial interest is discussed.
Keywords: biocatalysis; non-conventional yeasts (NCYs); ene-reductases; carbonyl reductases; monoterpenoids; (4R)-(−)-carvone; (1R)-(−)-myrtenal biocatalysis; non-conventional yeasts (NCYs); ene-reductases; carbonyl reductases; monoterpenoids; (4R)-(−)-carvone; (1R)-(−)-myrtenal
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Goretti, M.; Turchetti, B.; Cramarossa, M.R.; Forti, L.; Buzzini, P. Production of Flavours and Fragrances via Bioreduction of (4R)-(-)-Carvone and (1R)-(-)-Myrtenal by Non-Conventional Yeast Whole-Cells. Molecules 2013, 18, 5736-5748.

AMA Style

Goretti M, Turchetti B, Cramarossa MR, Forti L, Buzzini P. Production of Flavours and Fragrances via Bioreduction of (4R)-(-)-Carvone and (1R)-(-)-Myrtenal by Non-Conventional Yeast Whole-Cells. Molecules. 2013; 18(5):5736-5748.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goretti, Marta; Turchetti, Benedetta; Cramarossa, Maria R.; Forti, Luca; Buzzini, Pietro. 2013. "Production of Flavours and Fragrances via Bioreduction of (4R)-(-)-Carvone and (1R)-(-)-Myrtenal by Non-Conventional Yeast Whole-Cells." Molecules 18, no. 5: 5736-5748.



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