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Special Issue "Sensors and Systems for Medical Applications and Personal Health Monitoring"

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A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Kazunori Hoshino (Website)

Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, 260 Glenbrook Rd Unit 3247, Storrs, CT 06269-3247, USA
Phone: +1 860 486 4294
Fax: +1 860 486 2500
Interests: MEMS; nanophotonics; MEMS-based optical microscopy; organic and inorganic light emitting devices
Guest Editor
Dr. Emmanuel Quevy

Independent Consultant, 1629 Julian Drive El Cerrito, CA 94530, USA
Phone: +1 510 827 5604
Interests: MEMS design; fabrication and characterization RF analog circuit design / semiconductor processing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The miniaturization of biomedical and sensor systems for point-of-care diagnostics and embedded electronics has garnered increased attention in recent years in the sensor and integrated circuit engineering community, as well as in the medical community. These applications have great potential to change the way society approaches health monitoring and medicine by impacting early diagnosis, therapeutics, and the management of chronic diseases.

But with great promises come severe technical challenges, which require multi-disciplinary approaches at the frontiers of micro/nano-scale integration of sensing devices, low power embedded circuits and systems, communication and networking, and, of course, biology and life sciences.

This Special Issue aims to highlight recent advances and the enormous potential that sensing devices, circuits, and systems have in developing always on distributed diagnostics and therapy, and in enabling the next generation of medical care and health monitoring.

Dr. Emmanuel Quevy
Dr. Kazunori Hoshino
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • MEMS/NEMS
  • biosensors
  • environmental sensors
  • low power electronics
  • always-on systems
  • body area networks (BAN)
  • energy scavenging and power management in BAN
  • implantable electronics
  • wearable electronics
  • human-machine interfaces
  • brain-machine interfaces
  • bio-signal processing and feedback systems
  • remote health monitoring
  • smart phone-based telemetry

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle A Micro Saddle Coil with Switchable Sensitivity for Local High-Resolution Imaging of Luminal Tissue
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 67; doi:10.3390/mi7040067
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
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Abstract
This paper reports on a micro saddle coil for local high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fabricated by embedding a flexible coil pattern into a polydimethyilsiloxane (PDMS) tube. We can change the sensitivity of the micro coil by deforming the shape of the [...] Read more.
This paper reports on a micro saddle coil for local high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fabricated by embedding a flexible coil pattern into a polydimethyilsiloxane (PDMS) tube. We can change the sensitivity of the micro coil by deforming the shape of the coil from a saddle-shaped mode to a planar-shaped mode. The inductance, the resistance, and the Q-factor of the coil in the saddle-shaped mode were 2.45 μH, 3.31 Ω, and 39.9, respectively. Those of the planar-shaped mode were 3.07 μH, 3.92 Ω, and 42.9, respectively. In MRI acquired in saddle-shaped mode, a large visible area existed around the coil. Although the sensitive area was considerably reduced in the planar-shaped mode, clear MRI images were obtained. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of the saddle-shaped and planar-shaped modes were 194.9 and 505.9, respectively, at voxel size of 2.0 × 2.0 × 2.0 mm3 and 11.7 and 37.4, respectively, at voxel size of 0.5 × 0.5 × 1.0 mm3. The sensitivity of the saddle-shaped and the planar-shaped modes were about 3 times and 10 times higher, respectively, than those of the medical head coil at both voxel sizes. Thus, the micro saddle coil enabled large-area imaging and highly sensitive imaging by switching the shape of the coil. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Mental Fatigue Monitoring Using a Wearable Transparent Eye Detection System
Micromachines 2016, 7(2), 20; doi:10.3390/mi7020020
Received: 20 August 2015 / Revised: 15 January 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2016 / Published: 26 January 2016
PDF Full-text (3017 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We propose mental fatigue measurement using a wearable eye detection system. The system is capable of acquiring movement of the pupil and blinking from the light reflected from the eye. The reflection is detected by dye-sensitized photovoltaic cells. Since these cells are [...] Read more.
We propose mental fatigue measurement using a wearable eye detection system. The system is capable of acquiring movement of the pupil and blinking from the light reflected from the eye. The reflection is detected by dye-sensitized photovoltaic cells. Since these cells are patterned onto the eyeglass and do not require external input power, the system is notable for its lightweight and low power consumption and can be combined with other wearable devices, such as a head mounted display. We performed experiments to correlate information obtained by the eye detection system with the mental fatigue of the user. Since it is quite difficult to evaluate mental fatigue objectively and quantitatively, we assumed that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) had a strong correlation with te mental fatigue. While a subject was requested to conduct calculation tasks, the eye detection system collected his/her information that included position, velocity and total movement of the eye, and amount and frequency of blinking. Multiple regression analyses revealed the correlation between NASA-TLX and the information obtained for 3 out of 5 subjects. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle On the Interaction between a Nanoparticulate System and the Human Body in Body Area Nanonetworks
Micromachines 2015, 6(9), 1213-1235; doi:10.3390/mi6091213
Received: 23 June 2015 / Revised: 11 August 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (581 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we investigate the interaction of a nanoparticulate system for nanomedicine applications with the biological environment, i.e., the human body. Following the molecular communication paradigm, we assess how our nanoparticulate system model is suitable for coexistence in a biological environment. [...] Read more.
In this work, we investigate the interaction of a nanoparticulate system for nanomedicine applications with the biological environment, i.e., the human body. Following the molecular communication paradigm, we assess how our nanoparticulate system model is suitable for coexistence in a biological environment. Specifically, we assume the presence of the human immune system that can affect the optimal behavior of nanoparticles, aiming to locally deliver drug inside the human body. When a flow of nanoparticles is injected into the blood, the interference due to the immune system can provide a strong decrease of the nanoparticle concentration, by means of “humoral immunity”, the phagocytosis process, etc. As a consequence, the correct drug delivery will occur with a lower probability. Since the mechanism behind the biological immune system is very complicated, in this paper, we start from a simplistic nanoparticulate model, where the nanoparticles and the cells of the immune system are subject to the diffusion laws. Finally, we derive the end-to-end physical model of our nanoparticulate nanomedicine system with the presence of the human immune system cells. The error analysis is then investigated in terms of how these errors can affect the performance of the system, i.e., nanoparticle survival probability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Integrated Glucose Sensor with an All-Solid-State Sodium Ion-Selective Electrode for a Minimally Invasive Glucose Monitoring System
Micromachines 2015, 6(7), 831-841; doi:10.3390/mi6070831
Received: 2 May 2015 / Revised: 16 June 2015 / Accepted: 25 June 2015 / Published: 30 June 2015
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Abstract
We developed a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system that uses a microneedle to permeate the skin surface and a small hydrogel to accumulate interstitial fluid glucose. The measurement of glucose and sodium ion levels in the hydrogel is required for estimating glucose [...] Read more.
We developed a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system that uses a microneedle to permeate the skin surface and a small hydrogel to accumulate interstitial fluid glucose. The measurement of glucose and sodium ion levels in the hydrogel is required for estimating glucose levels in blood; therefore, we developed a small, enzyme-fixed glucose sensor with a high-selectivity, all-solid-state, sodium ion-selective electrode (ISE) integrated into its design. The glucose sensor immobilized glucose oxidase showed a good correlation between the glucose levels in the hydrogels and the reference glucose levels (r > 0.99), and exhibited a good precision (coefficient of variation = 2.9%, 0.6 mg/dL). In the design of the sodium ISEs, we used the insertion material Na0.33MnO2 as the inner contact layer and DD16C5 exhibiting high Na+/K+ selectivity as the ionophore. The developed sodium ISE exhibited high selectivity (\( \log \,k^{pot}_{Na,K} = -2.8\)) and good potential stability. The sodium ISE could measure 0.4 mM (10−3.4 M) sodium ion levels in the hydrogels containing 268 mM (10−0.57 M) KCl. The small integrated sensor (ϕ < 10 mm) detected glucose and sodium ions in hydrogels simultaneously within 1 min, and it exhibited sufficient performance for use as a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system. Full article
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