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Micromachines 2015, 6(7), 831-841; doi:10.3390/mi6070831

An Integrated Glucose Sensor with an All-Solid-State Sodium Ion-Selective Electrode for a Minimally Invasive Glucose Monitoring System

Central Research Laboratories, Sysmex Corporation, 4-4-4 Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2271, Japan
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Academic Editors: Kazunori Hoshino and Emmanuel Quevy
Received: 2 May 2015 / Revised: 16 June 2015 / Accepted: 25 June 2015 / Published: 30 June 2015
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Abstract

We developed a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system that uses a microneedle to permeate the skin surface and a small hydrogel to accumulate interstitial fluid glucose. The measurement of glucose and sodium ion levels in the hydrogel is required for estimating glucose levels in blood; therefore, we developed a small, enzyme-fixed glucose sensor with a high-selectivity, all-solid-state, sodium ion-selective electrode (ISE) integrated into its design. The glucose sensor immobilized glucose oxidase showed a good correlation between the glucose levels in the hydrogels and the reference glucose levels (r > 0.99), and exhibited a good precision (coefficient of variation = 2.9%, 0.6 mg/dL). In the design of the sodium ISEs, we used the insertion material Na0.33MnO2 as the inner contact layer and DD16C5 exhibiting high Na+/K+ selectivity as the ionophore. The developed sodium ISE exhibited high selectivity (\( \log \,k^{pot}_{Na,K} = -2.8\)) and good potential stability. The sodium ISE could measure 0.4 mM (10−3.4 M) sodium ion levels in the hydrogels containing 268 mM (10−0.57 M) KCl. The small integrated sensor (ϕ < 10 mm) detected glucose and sodium ions in hydrogels simultaneously within 1 min, and it exhibited sufficient performance for use as a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system. View Full-Text
Keywords: all-solid-state; sodium ion sensor; ion-selective electrode (ISE); glucose sensor; diabetes mellitus; interstitial fluid; minimally invasive glucose monitoring all-solid-state; sodium ion sensor; ion-selective electrode (ISE); glucose sensor; diabetes mellitus; interstitial fluid; minimally invasive glucose monitoring
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kojima, J.; Hosoya, S.; Suminaka, C.; Hori, N.; Sato, T. An Integrated Glucose Sensor with an All-Solid-State Sodium Ion-Selective Electrode for a Minimally Invasive Glucose Monitoring System. Micromachines 2015, 6, 831-841.

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