Special Issue "Pest Control and Management"

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A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Timothy J. Gibb

Purdue University, College of Agriculture, Department of Entomology, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1158, USA
Phone: +1 765 494 4570
Interests: integrated pest management; turfgrass pest management; insect diagnostics; urban entomology; forensics; vertebrate pest management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The need for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in urban systems is at an all time high. Public demands to decrease human exposure to toxicants of all kinds continue to increase while expectations of pest management remain high. When compared to agricultural crop production IPM, Urban IPM research is complicated because it must account for a 'human factor" composed of qualitative aspects such as aesthetics, comfort, health and peace of mind.
These considerations, in many ways, substitute for the quantitative
economics involved in agricultural decision making.  However, because many of the qualifying aspects of urban IPM are subjective, they cannot be easily measured. This subjectivity represents a major challenge to researchers who must recognize social concerns as the driving factor of IPM. Public attitudes, perceptions, and prejudices regarding pests and pesticides and their effect on human activities and the environment must be included.
This special issue of Insects will highlight the complexity of urban IPM
research, while recognizing that the need for it is paramount.

Dr. Timothy J. Gibb
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • urban integrated pest management
  • structural, turfgrass
  • landscape
  • health insect pests
  • diagnostics
  • urban entomology
  • forensics

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Laboratory and Simulated Field Bioassays to Evaluate Larvicidal Activity of Pinus densiflora Hydrodistillate, Its Constituents and Structurally Related Compounds against Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens in Relation to Their Inhibitory Effects on Acetylcholinesterase Activity
Insects 2013, 4(2), 217-229; doi:10.3390/insects4020217
Received: 1 April 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 25 April 2013 / Published: 30 May 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The toxicity of Pinus densiflora (red pine) hydrodistillate, its 19 constituents and 28 structurally related compounds against early third-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex pipiens palles (Cx. p. pallens) was [...] Read more.
The toxicity of Pinus densiflora (red pine) hydrodistillate, its 19 constituents and 28 structurally related compounds against early third-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex pipiens palles (Cx. p. pallens) was examined using direct-contact bioassays. The efficacy of active compounds was further evaluated in semi-field bioassays using field-collected larval Cx. p. pallens. Results were compared with those of two synthetic larvicides, temephos and fenthion. In laboratory bioassays, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate was found to have 24 h LC50 values of 20.33, 21.01 and 22.36 mg/L against larval Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. p. pallens respectively. Among the identified compounds, thymol, δ-3-carene and (+)-limonene exhibited the highest toxicity against all three mosquito species. These active compounds were found to be nearly equally effective in field trials as well. In vitro bioassays were conducted to examine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of 10 selected compounds. Results showed that there is a noticeable correlation between larvicidal activity and AChE inhibitory activity. In light of global efforts to find alternatives for currently used insecticides against disease vector mosquitoes, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate and its constituents merit further research as potential mosquito larvicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
Open AccessArticle Persistence of the Gypsy Moth Pheromone, Disparlure, in the Environment in Various Climates
Insects 2013, 4(1), 104-116; doi:10.3390/insects4010104
Received: 9 October 2012 / Revised: 10 December 2012 / Accepted: 3 January 2013 / Published: 14 January 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mating disruption techniques are used in pest control for many species of insects, yet little is known regarding the environmental persistence of these pheromones following their application and if persistence is affected by climatic conditions. We first studied the persistent effect of [...] Read more.
Mating disruption techniques are used in pest control for many species of insects, yet little is known regarding the environmental persistence of these pheromones following their application and if persistence is affected by climatic conditions. We first studied the persistent effect of ground applications of Luretape® GM in Lymantria dispar (L) mating disruption in VA, USA in 2006. The removal of Luretape® GM indicated that the strong persistent effect of disparlure in the environment reported by previous studies is produced by residual pheromone in the dispensers as opposed to environmental contamination. In 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of two formulations, Disrupt® II and SPLAT GMTM, in VA and WI, USA, which presented different climatic conditions. In plots treated in WI and VA, male moth catches in pheromone-baited traps were reduced in the year of treatment and one year after the pheromone applications relative to untreated controls. However, similar first- and second-year effects of pheromone treatments in VA and WI suggest that the release rate over one and two years was the same across markedly different climates. Future applications that use liquid or biodegradable formulations of synthetic pheromones could reduce the amount of persistence in the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
Open AccessArticle Survival and Infectivity of the Insect-Parasitic Nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar in Solutions Containing Four Different Turfgrass Soil Surfactants
Insects 2013, 4(1), 1-8; doi:10.3390/insects4010001
Received: 26 September 2012 / Revised: 28 October 2012 / Accepted: 8 November 2012 / Published: 20 December 2012
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Abstract
This laboratory study examined viability and infectivity of the entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar in solutions containing four different turfgrass soil surfactants: Revolution (Aquatrols Corp., Paulsboro, NJ), Aqueduct (Aquatrols Corp., Paulsboro, NJ), Cascade Plus (Precision Laboratories Inc., Waukegan, IL) and OARS [...] Read more.
This laboratory study examined viability and infectivity of the entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar in solutions containing four different turfgrass soil surfactants: Revolution (Aquatrols Corp., Paulsboro, NJ), Aqueduct (Aquatrols Corp., Paulsboro, NJ), Cascade Plus (Precision Laboratories Inc., Waukegan, IL) and OARS (Aqua-Aid Inc., Rocky Mount, NC). Infective juvenile H. bacteriophora were added to solutions containing each of the four surfactants, and nematode viability and infectivity were monitored over time. In one of two trials, nematode survival in solutions containing the surfactants Aqueduct and Cascade Plus was consistently higher compared to the water control and solutions containing Revolution or OARS. Surfactants had no significant influence on nematode infectivity in either trial. Findings indicate that most of the common turfgrass soil surfactants examined should be compatible with EPNs and that some may potentially enhance nematode survival. Results also imply that tank-mixing of EPNs with most turfgrass soil surfactants should not pose a significant risk to the nematodes. The influence of soil surfactants on EPN performance remains to be examined in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
Open AccessArticle Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1257-1270; doi:10.3390/insects3041257
Received: 15 August 2012 / Revised: 29 October 2012 / Accepted: 27 November 2012 / Published: 5 December 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006–2011) from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in “Desirable” variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, [...] Read more.
Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006–2011) from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in “Desirable” variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
Open AccessArticle Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1171-1189; doi:10.3390/insects3041171
Received: 13 August 2012 / Revised: 8 October 2012 / Accepted: 12 October 2012 / Published: 9 November 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest [...] Read more.
The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
Open AccessArticle Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Busseola segeta Bowden (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae): A Case Study of Host Use Diversification in Guineo-Congolian Rainforest Relic Area, Kenya
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1156-1170; doi:10.3390/insects3041156
Received: 27 July 2012 / Revised: 22 August 2012 / Accepted: 30 August 2012 / Published: 6 November 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Habitat modification and fragmentation are considered as some of the factors that drive organism distribution and host use diversification. Indigenous African stem borer pests are thought to have diversified their host ranges to include maize [Zea mays L.] and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in response to their increased availability through extensive cultivation. However, management efforts have been geared towards reducing pest populations in the cultivated fields with few attempts to understand possible evolution of "new" pest species. Recovery and growing persistence of Busseola segeta Bowden on maize (Zea mays L.) in Kakamega called for studies on the role of wild host plants on the invasion of crops by wild borer species. A two-year survey was carried out in a small agricultural landscape along the edge of Kakamega forest (Kenya) to assess host range and population genetic structure of B. segeta. The larvae of B. segeta were found on nine different plant species with the majority occurring on maize and sorghum. Of forty cytochrome b haplotypes identified, twenty-three occurred in both wild and cultivated habitats. The moths appear to fly long distances across the habitats with genetic analyses revealing weak differentiation between hosts in different habitats (FST = 0.016; p = 0.015). However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between growing seasons in the wild habitat (FST = 0.060; p < 0.001) with emergence or disappearance of haplotypes between habitats. Busseola segeta is an example of a phytophagous insect that utilizes plants with a human induced distribution range, maize, but does not show evidence of host race formation or reduction of gene flow among populations using different hosts. However, B. segeta is capable of becoming an important pest in the area and the current low densities may be attributed to the general low infestation levels and presence of a wide range of alternative hosts in the area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
Open AccessArticle Seasonal Flight, Optimal Timing and Efficacy of Selected Insecticides for Cabbage Maggot (Delia radicum L., Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Control
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1001-1027; doi:10.3390/insects3041001
Received: 17 July 2012 / Revised: 26 September 2012 / Accepted: 15 October 2012 / Published: 22 October 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to describe seasonal flight activity of the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L.) adults in relation to Julian days (JD), degree-day accumulations (DDA) and precipitation, flight dynamics were followed weekly with the use of yellow sticky traps (YST). Climatic data were [...] Read more.
In order to describe seasonal flight activity of the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L.) adults in relation to Julian days (JD), degree-day accumulations (DDA) and precipitation, flight dynamics were followed weekly with the use of yellow sticky traps (YST). Climatic data were collected and DDA were calculated using the lower developmental threshold of 4.3 °C. The efficacy of four insecticides applied either as standard foliar treatment or through dipping the seedlings before transplanting was determined. Seasonal flight activity during the cultivation season of a mid-early variety of white cabbage was correlated with DDA and JD and was characterized by having two peaks. The first peak occurred between 119 ± 7.5 JD and 125.5 ± 8 JD when DDA was 471.35 ± 74.97 °C. The second occurred between 172.8 ± 6.1 JD and 179.3 ± 6.7 JD when DDA was 1,217.28 ± 96.12 °C. The DDA, cumulative capture of flies and JD are suitable for predicting the timing of insecticide application. Spraying with insecticides should be applied when the cumulative capture of flies reaches 100 flies/YST and when DDA reaches 400 °C. If only one parameter reaches the threshold, additional visual surveys should be employed to establish the level of infestation. Insecticides were able to ensure only partial control. In the future, alternative control tactics which employ seed treatments and nonpesticide measures should be investigated in Croatia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
Open AccessArticle Differences in Immune Defense Evasion of Selected Inbred Lines of Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora in Two White Grub Species
Insects 2012, 3(2), 378-389; doi:10.3390/insects3020378
Received: 7 February 2012 / Revised: 1 March 2012 / Accepted: 14 March 2012 / Published: 23 March 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We determined virulence of seven Heterorhabditis bacteriophora strain GPS11 inbred lines possessing superior infective juvenile longevity, and heat and ultra violet radiation tolerance against white grubs Popillia japonica and Cyclocephala borealis. At 1 and 2 weeks after treatment, inbred line A2 [...] Read more.
We determined virulence of seven Heterorhabditis bacteriophora strain GPS11 inbred lines possessing superior infective juvenile longevity, and heat and ultra violet radiation tolerance against white grubs Popillia japonica and Cyclocephala borealis. At 1 and 2 weeks after treatment, inbred line A2 was significantly more virulent towards P. japonica compared to the parent strain GPS11 and inbred lines A7, A8, A12 and A21; and line A2 caused significantly higher C. borealis mortality than lines A6 and A12. Penetration, encapsulation and survival of two inbred lines, A2 and A12, that showed the highest and lowest virulence against both grub species were then assessed. There were no differences between the two lines for the total number of nematodes penetrated in either P. japonica or C. borealis within the first 24 h, but a significantly higher percentage of penetrated nematodes were alive in line A2 compared to the line A12 in both grub species. P. japonica immune response over time to hemocoel-injected nematodes of A2, A12 and the parent strain was further investigated. While all injected nematodes were encapsulated at 6 h post injection, non-encapsulated living nematodes were detected at 12 and 24 h post injection, showing the breakage out of encapsulation. A higher percentage of non-encapsulated living nematodes and a lower percentage of dead nematodes were found in line A2 as compared to the line A12 after 12 h post injection. These data suggest that virulence differences in the studied H. bacteriophora inbred lines are not due to differences in nematode penetration or recognition by the grub immune system, but are related to the ability of the infective juveniles to break out of encapsulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Chemical Ecology of the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Potential for Alternative Control Methods
Insects 2013, 4(1), 31-54; doi:10.3390/insects4010031
Received: 5 October 2012 / Revised: 8 November 2012 / Accepted: 20 November 2012 / Published: 20 December 2012
PDF Full-text (628 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Colorado potato beetle (CPB) has been a major insect pest to potato farming for over 150 years and various control methods have been established to reduce its impact on potato fields. Crop rotation and pesticide use are currently the most widely [...] Read more.
The Colorado potato beetle (CPB) has been a major insect pest to potato farming for over 150 years and various control methods have been established to reduce its impact on potato fields. Crop rotation and pesticide use are currently the most widely used approaches, although alternative methods are being developed. Here we review the role of various volatile and nonvolatile chemicals involved in behavior changes of CPB that may have potential for their control. First, we describe all volatile and nonvolatile chemicals involved in host plant localization and acceptance by CPB beetles, including glycoalcaloids and host plant volatiles used as kairomones. In the second section, we present the chemical signals used by CPB in intraspecific communication, including sex and aggregation pheromones. Some of these chemicals are used by natural enemies of CPBs to locate their prey and are presented in the third section. The last section of this review is devoted a discussion of the potential of some natural chemicals in biological control of CPB and to approaches that already reached efficient field applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
Open AccessReview Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1126-1142; doi:10.3390/insects3041126
Received: 9 September 2012 / Revised: 16 October 2012 / Accepted: 17 October 2012 / Published: 26 October 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and [...] Read more.
Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
Open AccessReview An Overview of the Components of AW-IPM Campaigns against the New World Screwworm
Insects 2012, 3(4), 930-955; doi:10.3390/insects3040930
Received: 2 August 2012 / Revised: 1 September 2012 / Accepted: 25 September 2012 / Published: 12 October 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is one of the most damaging parasites of livestock, causing millions of dollars in annual losses to producers. The fly is an obligate parasite of warm-blooded animals, including humans. After a successful 50-year eradication campaign, [...] Read more.
The New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is one of the most damaging parasites of livestock, causing millions of dollars in annual losses to producers. The fly is an obligate parasite of warm-blooded animals, including humans. After a successful 50-year eradication campaign, C. hominivorax has been eradicated from the USA, Mexico and Central America by an area-wide integrated pest management approach. Recently, Caribbean and South American countries have expressed an interest in this approach. Aiming to support forthcoming projects in these countries, this review describes the main technical components of past and ongoing AW-IPM campaigns against C. hominivorax. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)

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