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Insects 2012, 3(4), 1001-1027; doi:10.3390/insects3041001
Article

Seasonal Flight, Optimal Timing and Efficacy of Selected Insecticides for Cabbage Maggot (Delia radicum L., Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Control

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1 Department of Agricultural Zoology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Svetošimunska 25, Croatia 2 Agricultural Advisory Service, 47300 Ogulin, Bernardina Frankopana 13, Croatia 3 Chromos-Agro d.d. 10000 Zagreb, Žitnjak bb, Croatia 4 Department of Vegetable Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Svetošimunska 25, Croatia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 July 2012 / Revised: 26 September 2012 / Accepted: 15 October 2012 / Published: 22 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
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Abstract

In order to describe seasonal flight activity of the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L.) adults in relation to Julian days (JD), degree-day accumulations (DDA) and precipitation, flight dynamics were followed weekly with the use of yellow sticky traps (YST). Climatic data were collected and DDA were calculated using the lower developmental threshold of 4.3 °C. The efficacy of four insecticides applied either as standard foliar treatment or through dipping the seedlings before transplanting was determined. Seasonal flight activity during the cultivation season of a mid-early variety of white cabbage was correlated with DDA and JD and was characterized by having two peaks. The first peak occurred between 119 ± 7.5 JD and 125.5 ± 8 JD when DDA was 471.35 ± 74.97 °C. The second occurred between 172.8 ± 6.1 JD and 179.3 ± 6.7 JD when DDA was 1,217.28 ± 96.12 °C. The DDA, cumulative capture of flies and JD are suitable for predicting the timing of insecticide application. Spraying with insecticides should be applied when the cumulative capture of flies reaches 100 flies/YST and when DDA reaches 400 °C. If only one parameter reaches the threshold, additional visual surveys should be employed to establish the level of infestation. Insecticides were able to ensure only partial control. In the future, alternative control tactics which employ seed treatments and nonpesticide measures should be investigated in Croatia.
Keywords: acetamiprid; cabbage maggot; dimethoate; dipping of the seedlings; degree-day accumulation; imidacloprid; Julian days; seasonal flight dynamics; thiamethoxam; yellow sticky traps acetamiprid; cabbage maggot; dimethoate; dipping of the seedlings; degree-day accumulation; imidacloprid; Julian days; seasonal flight dynamics; thiamethoxam; yellow sticky traps
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Bažok, R.; Ceranić-Sertić, M.; Barčić, J.I.; Borošić, J.; Kozina, A.; Kos, T.; Lemić, D.; Čačija, M. Seasonal Flight, Optimal Timing and Efficacy of Selected Insecticides for Cabbage Maggot (Delia radicum L., Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Control. Insects 2012, 3, 1001-1027.

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