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Insects 2013, 4(1), 104-116; doi:10.3390/insects4010104
Article

Persistence of the Gypsy Moth Pheromone, Disparlure, in the Environment in Various Climates

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Received: 9 October 2012; in revised form: 10 December 2012 / Accepted: 3 January 2013 / Published: 14 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
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Abstract: Mating disruption techniques are used in pest control for many species of insects, yet little is known regarding the environmental persistence of these pheromones following their application and if persistence is affected by climatic conditions. We first studied the persistent effect of ground applications of Luretape® GM in Lymantria dispar (L) mating disruption in VA, USA in 2006. The removal of Luretape® GM indicated that the strong persistent effect of disparlure in the environment reported by previous studies is produced by residual pheromone in the dispensers as opposed to environmental contamination. In 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of two formulations, Disrupt® II and SPLAT GMTM, in VA and WI, USA, which presented different climatic conditions. In plots treated in WI and VA, male moth catches in pheromone-baited traps were reduced in the year of treatment and one year after the pheromone applications relative to untreated controls. However, similar first- and second-year effects of pheromone treatments in VA and WI suggest that the release rate over one and two years was the same across markedly different climates. Future applications that use liquid or biodegradable formulations of synthetic pheromones could reduce the amount of persistence in the environment.
Keywords: Lymantria dispar; pheromone; mating disruption; environmental persistence Lymantria dispar; pheromone; mating disruption; environmental persistence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Onufrieva, K.S.; Thorpe, K.W.; Hickman, A.D.; Leonard, D.S.; Roberts, E.A.; Tobin, P.C. Persistence of the Gypsy Moth Pheromone, Disparlure, in the Environment in Various Climates. Insects 2013, 4, 104-116.

AMA Style

Onufrieva KS, Thorpe KW, Hickman AD, Leonard DS, Roberts EA, Tobin PC. Persistence of the Gypsy Moth Pheromone, Disparlure, in the Environment in Various Climates. Insects. 2013; 4(1):104-116.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Onufrieva, Ksenia S.; Thorpe, Kevin W.; Hickman, Andrea D.; Leonard, Donna S.; Roberts, E. A.; Tobin, Patrick C. 2013. "Persistence of the Gypsy Moth Pheromone, Disparlure, in the Environment in Various Climates." Insects 4, no. 1: 104-116.


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