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Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan
Entomology Department, University of Georgia, 2360 Rainwater Rd., Tifton, GA 31793, USA
Entomological Research Sub-Station, Old Shujabad Road, Multan 60000, Pakistan
Pest Warning & Quality Control of Pesticides, Punjab, Khanewal 58150, Pakistan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 August 2012; in revised form: 29 October 2012 / Accepted: 27 November 2012 / Published: 5 December 2012
Abstract: Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006–2011) from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in “Desirable” variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids.
Keywords: shade tree; biological aphid and mite control; insect and mite predators
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Dutcher, J.D.; Karar, H.; Abbas, G. Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan. Insects 2012, 3, 1257-1270.
Dutcher JD, Karar H, Abbas G. Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan. Insects. 2012; 3(4):1257-1270.
Dutcher, James D.; Karar, Haider; Abbas, Ghulam. 2012. "Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan." Insects 3, no. 4: 1257-1270.