Insects 2013, 4(1), 1-8; doi:10.3390/insects4010001
Article

Survival and Infectivity of the Insect-Parasitic Nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar in Solutions Containing Four Different Turfgrass Soil Surfactants

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Received: 26 September 2012; in revised form: 28 October 2012 / Accepted: 8 November 2012 / Published: 20 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
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Abstract: This laboratory study examined viability and infectivity of the entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar in solutions containing four different turfgrass soil surfactants: Revolution (Aquatrols Corp., Paulsboro, NJ), Aqueduct (Aquatrols Corp., Paulsboro, NJ), Cascade Plus (Precision Laboratories Inc., Waukegan, IL) and OARS (Aqua-Aid Inc., Rocky Mount, NC). Infective juvenile H. bacteriophora were added to solutions containing each of the four surfactants, and nematode viability and infectivity were monitored over time. In one of two trials, nematode survival in solutions containing the surfactants Aqueduct and Cascade Plus was consistently higher compared to the water control and solutions containing Revolution or OARS. Surfactants had no significant influence on nematode infectivity in either trial. Findings indicate that most of the common turfgrass soil surfactants examined should be compatible with EPNs and that some may potentially enhance nematode survival. Results also imply that tank-mixing of EPNs with most turfgrass soil surfactants should not pose a significant risk to the nematodes. The influence of soil surfactants on EPN performance remains to be examined in the field.
Keywords: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora; surfactant; survival; infectivity; tank-mixing; integrated pest management
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hoctor, T.L.; Gibb, T.J.; Bigelow, C.A.; Richmond, D.S. Survival and Infectivity of the Insect-Parasitic Nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar in Solutions Containing Four Different Turfgrass Soil Surfactants. Insects 2013, 4, 1-8.

AMA Style

Hoctor TL, Gibb TJ, Bigelow CA, Richmond DS. Survival and Infectivity of the Insect-Parasitic Nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar in Solutions Containing Four Different Turfgrass Soil Surfactants. Insects. 2013; 4(1):1-8.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hoctor, Terri L.; Gibb, Timothy J.; Bigelow, Cale A.; Richmond, Douglas S. 2013. "Survival and Infectivity of the Insect-Parasitic Nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar in Solutions Containing Four Different Turfgrass Soil Surfactants." Insects 4, no. 1: 1-8.

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