Insects 2012, 3(4), 1171-1189; doi:10.3390/insects3041171
Article

Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

1 Global Change and Sustainability Research Institute, School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa 2 Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa 3 Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Botswana International University of Science and Technology (BIUST). Private Bag BO 041 Bontleng, Gaborone, Botswana Current address: International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), Habitat Management Programme, Plant Health Division, P.O. Box 30, Mbita Point Research Station, Mbita Point, Kenya
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2012; in revised form: 8 October 2012 / Accepted: 12 October 2012 / Published: 9 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
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Abstract: The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies.
Keywords: climate change; integrated pest management; insect population dynamics

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chidawanyika, F.; Mudavanhu, P.; Nyamukondiwa, C. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions. Insects 2012, 3, 1171-1189.

AMA Style

Chidawanyika F, Mudavanhu P, Nyamukondiwa C. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions. Insects. 2012; 3(4):1171-1189.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chidawanyika, Frank; Mudavanhu, Pride; Nyamukondiwa, Casper. 2012. "Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions." Insects 3, no. 4: 1171-1189.

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