Insects 2013, 4(1), 55-70; doi:10.3390/insects4010055
Review

Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil

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Received: 16 October 2012; in revised form: 17 November 2012 / Accepted: 7 December 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid’s potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.
Keywords: fruit flies; parasitoid; Diptera; Tephritidae; Braconidae
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MDPI and ACS Style

Garcia, F.R.M.; Ricalde, M.P. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil. Insects 2013, 4, 55-70.

AMA Style

Garcia FRM, Ricalde MP. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil. Insects. 2013; 4(1):55-70.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Garcia, Flávio R.M.; Ricalde, Marcelo P. 2013. "Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil." Insects 4, no. 1: 55-70.

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