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Location of Host and Host Habitat by Fruit Fly Parasitoids
CIRAD (Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement), UMR PVBMT Cirad, Université de La Réunion, Pôle de Protection des Plantes, 97410, Saint-Pierre, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 September 2012; in revised form: 29 October 2012 / Accepted: 29 October 2012 / Published: 22 November 2012
Abstract: Augmentative releases of parasitoids may be a useful tool for the area-wide management of tephritid pests. The latter are parasitized by many wasp species, though only a few of them are relevant for augmentative biocontrol purposes. To date, nearly all the actual or potential biocontrol agents for such programs are egg or larval Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Here, we review the literature published on their habitat and host location behavior, as well as the factors that modulate this behavior, which is assumed to be sequential; parasitoids forage first for the host habitat and then for the host itself. Parasitoids rely on chemical, visual, and mechanical stimuli, often strongly related to their ecology. Behavioral modulation factors include biotic and abiotic factors including learning, climatic conditions and physiological state of the insect. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for future research are briefly highlighted. A detailed knowledge of this behavior may be very useful for selecting the release sites for both inundative/augmentative releases of mass-reared parasitoids and inoculative releases for classical biocontrol.
Keywords: host habitat; host location; tephritid parasitoids; chemical stimuli; visual stimuli; mechanical stimuli
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MDPI and ACS Style
Quilici, S.; Rousse, P. Location of Host and Host Habitat by Fruit Fly Parasitoids. Insects 2012, 3, 1220-1235.
Quilici S, Rousse P. Location of Host and Host Habitat by Fruit Fly Parasitoids. Insects. 2012; 3(4):1220-1235.
Quilici, Serge; Rousse, Pascal. 2012. "Location of Host and Host Habitat by Fruit Fly Parasitoids." Insects 3, no. 4: 1220-1235.