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Insects 2012, 3(4), 1056-1083; doi:10.3390/insects3041056
Review

Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

1,†
, 2
, 1
, 3
 and 4,*
Received: 3 September 2012; in revised form: 4 October 2012 / Accepted: 10 October 2012 / Published: 22 October 2012
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Abstract: This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni.
Keywords: Braconidae; Tephritidae; Diachasmimorpha; Fopius arisanus; sterile insect technique; integrated pest management; mass-rearing Braconidae; Tephritidae; Diachasmimorpha; Fopius arisanus; sterile insect technique; integrated pest management; mass-rearing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zamek, A.L.; Spinner, J.E.; Micallef, J.L.; Gurr, G.M.; Reynolds, O.L. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control. Insects 2012, 3, 1056-1083.

AMA Style

Zamek AL, Spinner JE, Micallef JL, Gurr GM, Reynolds OL. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control. Insects. 2012; 3(4):1056-1083.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zamek, Ashley L.; Spinner, Jennifer E.; Micallef, Jessica L.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Reynolds, Olivia L. 2012. "Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control." Insects 3, no. 4: 1056-1083.

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