Insects 2012, 3(4), 900-911; doi:10.3390/insects3040900
Review

Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release

1 Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA-IICA, Camino a los Cacahotales S/N, CP 30680, Metapa de Domínguez, Chiapas, Mexico 2 El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, ECOSUR, Av. Centenario Km 5.5, CP 77014, Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico 3 El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, ECOSUR, Carretera Antiguo Aeropuerto Km 2.5, CP 30700, Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 August 2012; in revised form: 7 September 2012 / Accepted: 12 September 2012 / Published: 25 September 2012
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Abstract: Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests.
Keywords: biological control; Mexican fruit fly; Anastrepha ludens; larvae

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MDPI and ACS Style

Montoya, P.; Pérez-Lachaud, G.; Liedo, P. Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release. Insects 2012, 3, 900-911.

AMA Style

Montoya P, Pérez-Lachaud G, Liedo P. Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release. Insects. 2012; 3(4):900-911.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Montoya, Pablo; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo. 2012. "Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release." Insects 3, no. 4: 900-911.

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