Special Issue "Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards"

A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Alberto Pozzebon

Department of Agronomy Food Natural resources Animals and Environment, University of Padova, Agripolis - viale Dell' Università, 16 - 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Integrated pest management and biocontrol tactics; Ecotoxicology in agro-ecosystems; Ecology and conservation of biocontrol agents in perennial cropping systems
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Carlo Duso

Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural resources, Animals and the Environment, University of Padua, Agripolis, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro, Padova, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 0039 0498272805
Interests: Biological and integrated pest management, Side effects of pesticides, Functional biodiversity
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Gregory M. Loeb

Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Geneva, NY 14456, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: insect ecology; integrated pest management, biological control, small fruit entomology; plant-insect interactions; chemical ecology and behavior
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Geoff M. Gurr

Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University. Orange, New South Wales, Australia and State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: insect-plant and insect-microbe interactions; chemical ecology; habitat management for ecosystem services; developing country agriculture

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last decades pest management in orchards and vineyards has been driven by continual innovations aimed at the reduction of pesticides use in these systems. On one hand, research has been focused on a deeper understanding on the biology and ecology of the key pests in orchards and vineyards and the development of new approaches for their management. On the other hand, new invasive or emerging pests pose new challenges. This special issue will collect original research articles that shed light on basic aspects of the biology and ecology of arthropod pests occurring in orchards and vineyards as well as articles devoted to the management of these pests within an IPM framework.

Dr. Alberto Pozzebon
Prof. Carlo Duso
Prof. Gregory M. Loeb
Prof. Geoff M. Gurr
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Insects is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Integrated Pest Management  
  • Biological Control
  • Primary and secondary pest
  • Invasive pest
  • Chemical ecology
  • Pesticides

Published Papers (8 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Stability of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations in Pacific Northwest Pear Orchards Managed with Long-Term Mating Disruption for Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
Insects 2017, 8(4), 105; doi:10.3390/insects8040105
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
PDF Full-text (986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola, in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, codling moth Cydia pomonella, negatively impact natural enemies of pear psylla, thus causing outbreaks
[...] Read more.
This study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola, in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, codling moth Cydia pomonella, negatively impact natural enemies of pear psylla, thus causing outbreaks of this secondary pest. Hence, the objective of this study was to understand how codling moth management influences the abundance of pear psylla and its natural enemy complex in pear orchards managed under long-term codling moth mating disruption programs. We conducted this study within a pear orchard that had previously been under seasonal mating disruption for codling moth for eight years. We replicated two treatments, “natural enemy disrupt” (application of two combination sprays of spinetoram plus chlorantraniliprole timed against first-generation codling moth) and “natural enemy non-disrupt” four times in the orchard. Field sampling of psylla and natural enemies (i.e., lacewings, coccinellids, spiders, Campylomma verbasci, syrphid flies, earwigs) revealed that pear psylla populations remained well below treatment thresholds all season despite the reduced abundance of key pear psylla natural enemies in the natural enemy disrupt plots compared with the non-disrupt treatment. We speculate that pear psylla are difficult to disrupt when pear orchards are under long-term codling moth disruption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Getting More Power from Your Flowers: Multi-Functional Flower Strips Enhance Pollinators and Pest Control Agents in Apple Orchards
Insects 2017, 8(3), 101; doi:10.3390/insects8030101
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
PDF Full-text (2194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that
[...] Read more.
Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies) and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1) pollinators (‘concealed-nectar plants’); (2) natural enemies (‘open-nectar plants’); or (3) both groups concurrently (i.e., ‘multi-functional’ mix). Flower strips were established in alleyways of four orchards and compared to control alleyways (no flowers). Pollinator (e.g., bees) and natural enemy (e.g., parasitoid wasps, predatory flies and beetles) visitation to flower strips, alongside measures of pest control (aphid colony densities, sentinel prey predation), and fruit production, were monitored in orchards over two consecutive growing seasons. Targeted flower strips attracted either pollinators or natural enemies, whereas mixed flower strips attracted both groups in similar abundance to targeted mixes. Natural enemy densities on apple trees were higher in plots containing open-nectar plants compared to other treatments, but effects were stronger for non-aphidophagous taxa. Predation of sentinel prey was enhanced in all flowering plots compared to controls but pest aphid densities and fruit yield were unaffected by flower strips. We conclude that ‘multi-functional’ flower strips that contain flowering plant species with opposing floral traits can provide nectar and pollen for both pollinators and natural enemies, but further work is required to understand their potential for improving pest control services and yield in cider apple orchards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Resistance Management for Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in Florida
Insects 2017, 8(3), 103; doi:10.3390/insects8030103
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayma, is one of the most important pests in citrus production. The objective of this study was to evaluate D. citri resistance management with three insecticide rotations and compare them with no rotation and an untreated check.
[...] Read more.
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayma, is one of the most important pests in citrus production. The objective of this study was to evaluate D. citri resistance management with three insecticide rotations and compare them with no rotation and an untreated check. The different insecticides (modes of action) tested were: dimethoate, imidacloprid, diflubenzuron, abamectin 3% + thiamethoxam 13.9%, and fenpropathrin. Eggs, nymph, and adult psyllids were counted weekly. Five insecticide applications were made in 2016. Insecticide susceptibility was determined by direct comparison with a laboratory susceptible population and field populations before and after all treatments were applied. Rankings of eggs, nymphs, and adults counted in treated plots were significantly lower than in the untreated control plots after each application. Initially, the resistance ratio (RR50) for each rotation model, as compared with laboratory susceptible strain and the field population before application, was less than 5.76 and 4.31, respectively. However, after five applications with dimethoate, the RR50 using the laboratory and pre-treatment field populations was 42.34 and 34.74, respectively. Our results indicate that effectively rotating modes of action can delay and/or prevent development of insecticide resistance in populations of D. citri. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Comparative Programs for Arthropod, Disease and Weed Management in New York Organic Apples
Insects 2017, 8(3), 96; doi:10.3390/insects8030096
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
PDF Full-text (990 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From
[...] Read more.
Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of apples in Geneva, New York. Arthropod and disease management regimens were characterized as Advanced Organic, Minimal Organic, or Untreated Control. Results varied by year and variety, but, in general, the Advanced program was more effective than the Minimal program in preventing damage from internal-feeding Lepidoptera, plum curculio, and obliquebanded leafroller, and less effective than the Minimal program against damage by foliar insects. Both organic programs provided comparable control of sooty blotch, cedar apple rust, and fire blight, with some variability across cultivars and years. The advanced selection CC1009 and Modi seemed to possess complete resistance to cedar apple rust, while Pristine had partial resistance. For weed control, bark chip mulch, organic soap sprays, and limonene sprays tended to be most effective, while mechanical tillage and flame weeding had lower success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Minimal Pruning and Reduced Plant Protection Promote Predatory Mites in Grapevine
Insects 2017, 8(3), 86; doi:10.3390/insects8030086
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Improving natural pest control by promoting high densities of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an effective way to prevent damage by pest mites (e.g., Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae) and other arthropod taxa that can cause serious damage to vineyards. Here, we investigate the influence of
[...] Read more.
Improving natural pest control by promoting high densities of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an effective way to prevent damage by pest mites (e.g., Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae) and other arthropod taxa that can cause serious damage to vineyards. Here, we investigate the influence of innovative management on predatory mite densities. We compare (i) full versus reduced fungicide applications and (ii) minimal pruning versus a traditional trellis pruning system in four fungus-resistant grapevine varieties. As predatory mites also feed on fungus mycelium, we assessed fungal infection of grapevine leaves in the experimental vineyard. Predatory mites were significantly more abundant in both minimal pruning and under reduced plant protection. Increases in predatory mites appeared to be independent of fungal infection, suggesting mostly direct effects of reduced fungicides and minimal pruning. In contrast to predatory mites, pest mites did not increase under innovative management. Thus, conditions for natural pest control are improved in fungus-resistant grapevines and under minimal pruning, which adds to other advantages such as environmental safety and reduced production cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Sublethal Effects in Pest Management: A Surrogate Species Perspective on Fruit Fly Control
Insects 2017, 8(3), 78; doi:10.3390/insects8030078
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 29 July 2017
PDF Full-text (651 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tephritid fruit flies are economically important orchard pests globally. While much effort has focused on controlling individual species with a combination of pesticides and biological control, less attention has been paid to managing assemblages of species. Although several tephritid species may co-occur in
[...] Read more.
Tephritid fruit flies are economically important orchard pests globally. While much effort has focused on controlling individual species with a combination of pesticides and biological control, less attention has been paid to managing assemblages of species. Although several tephritid species may co-occur in orchards/cultivated areas, especially in mixed-cropping schemes, their responses to pesticides may be highly variable. Furthermore, predictive efforts about toxicant effects are generally based on acute toxicity, with little or no regard to long-term population effects. Using a simple matrix model parameterized with life history data, we quantified the responses of several tephritid species to the sublethal effects of a toxicant acting on fecundity. Using a critical threshold to determine levels of fecundity reduction below which species are driven to local extinction, we determined that threshold levels vary widely for the three tephritid species. In particular, Bactrocera dorsalis was the most robust of the three species, followed by Ceratitis capitata, and then B. cucurbitae, suggesting individual species responses should be taken into account when planning for area-wide pest control. The rank-order of susceptibility contrasts with results from several field/lab studies testing the same species, suggesting that considering a combination of life history traits and individual species susceptibility is necessary for understanding population responses of species assemblages to toxicant exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Companion Plants for Aphid Pest Management
Insects 2017, 8(4), 112; doi:10.3390/insects8040112 (registering DOI)
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
PDF Full-text (827 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A potential strategy for controlling pests is through the use of “companion plants” within a crop system. This strategy has been used in several trials to fight against a major crop insect pest: the aphid. We reviewed the literature to highlight the major
[...] Read more.
A potential strategy for controlling pests is through the use of “companion plants” within a crop system. This strategy has been used in several trials to fight against a major crop insect pest: the aphid. We reviewed the literature to highlight the major mechanisms by which a companion plant may act. Trials carried out under laboratory or field conditions revealed that companion plants operate through several mechanisms. A companion plant may be associated with a target crop for various reasons. Firstly, it can attract aphids and draw them away from their host plants. Secondly, it can alter the recognition of the host plant. This effect is mostly attributed to companion plant volatiles since they disturb the aphid host plant location, and additionally they may react chemically and physiologically with the host plant, making it an unsuitable host for aphids. Thirdly, it can attract natural enemies by providing shelter and food resources. In this review, the feasibility of using companion plants is discussed. We conclude that many factors need to be taken into account for a successful companion plant strategy. For the best long-term results, companion plant strategies have to be combined with other alternative approaches against aphids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Review of Ecologically-Based Pest Management in California Vineyards
Insects 2017, 8(4), 108; doi:10.3390/insects8040108
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
PDF Full-text (1141 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Grape growers in California utilize a variety of biological, cultural, and chemical approaches for the management of insect and mite pests in vineyards. This combination of strategies falls within the integrated pest management (IPM) framework, which is considered to be the dominant pest
[...] Read more.
Grape growers in California utilize a variety of biological, cultural, and chemical approaches for the management of insect and mite pests in vineyards. This combination of strategies falls within the integrated pest management (IPM) framework, which is considered to be the dominant pest management paradigm in vineyards. While the adoption of IPM has led to notable and significant reductions in the environmental impacts of grape production, some growers are becoming interested in the use of an explicitly non-pesticide approach to pest management that is broadly referred to as ecologically-based pest management (EBPM). Essentially a subset of IPM strategies, EBPM places strong emphasis on practices such as habitat management, natural enemy augmentation and conservation, and animal integration. Here, we summarize the range and known efficacy of EBPM practices utilized in California vineyards, followed by a discussion of research needs and future policy directions. EBPM should in no way be seen in opposition, or as an alternative to the IPM framework. Rather, the further development of more reliable EBPM practices could contribute to the robustness of IPM strategies available to grape growers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Planned Papers

Title: Conservation Biological Control of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Pacific Northwest Pears

Authors: Kaushalya G. Amarasekare 1,* and Peter W. Shearer 2

Affiliation: 1  Tennessee State University, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 3500, John A. Merritt Blvd., Nashville, TN, 37209, USA; kamarase@tnstate.edu ; 2 Washington State University, Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center, 1100 N. Western Ave. Wenatchee, WA. 98801, USA; peter.shearer@wsu.edu

Abstract: This study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla Cacopsylla pyricola, in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, the codling moth (CM) Cydia pomonella, negatively impact natural enemies of psylla, thus, causing outbreaks of this secondary pest. Hence, the objective of this study was to understand how CM management influences the abundance of pear psylla and its natural enemy complex in pear orchards managed under long-term CM mating disruption programs. This study was conducted within a pear orchard that had been under seasonal mating disruption for CM for six years. Two treatments, “natural enemy disrupt” (application of two combination sprays of Spinetoram plus Chlorantraniliprole timed against first generation CM to disrupt natural enemies) and “natural enemy non-disrupt” were replicated four times in a pear orchard. Field sampling of psylla and natural enemies (i.e. lacewings, Coccinellids, spiders, Campylomma sp., syrphids, earwigs) revealed that psylla populations remained well below treatment thresholds all season despite the reduced abundance of key psylla natural enemies in the natural enemy disrupt plots compared with the non-disrupt treatment. We speculate that long-term use of CM mating disruption tends to buffer psylla populations when their natural enemies are disrupted.

 

 

 

 

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Insects Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
E-Mail: 
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Insects Edit a special issue Review for Insects
logo
loading...
Back to Top