Special Issue "Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards"

A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Alberto Pozzebon

Department of Agronomy Food Natural resources Animals and Environment, University of Padova, Agripolis - viale Dell' Università, 16 - 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Integrated pest management and biocontrol tactics; Ecotoxicology in agro-ecosystems; Ecology and conservation of biocontrol agents in perennial cropping systems
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Carlo Duso

Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural resources, Animals and the Environment, University of Padua, Agripolis, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro, Padova, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 0039 0498272805
Interests: Biological and integrated pest management, Side effects of pesticides, Functional biodiversity
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Gregory M. Loeb

Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Geneva, NY 14456, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: insect ecology; integrated pest management, biological control, small fruit entomology; plant-insect interactions; chemical ecology and behavior
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Geoff M. Gurr

Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University. Orange, New South Wales, Australia and State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: insect-plant and insect-microbe interactions; chemical ecology; habitat management for ecosystem services; developing country agriculture

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last decades pest management in orchards and vineyards has been driven by continual innovations aimed at the reduction of pesticides use in these systems. On one hand, research has been focused on a deeper understanding on the biology and ecology of the key pests in orchards and vineyards and the development of new approaches for their management. On the other hand, new invasive or emerging pests pose new challenges. This special issue will collect original research articles that shed light on basic aspects of the biology and ecology of arthropod pests occurring in orchards and vineyards as well as articles devoted to the management of these pests within an IPM framework.

Dr. Alberto Pozzebon
Prof. Carlo Duso
Prof. Gregory M. Loeb
Prof. Geoff M. Gurr
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Insects is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Integrated Pest Management  
  • Biological Control
  • Primary and secondary pest
  • Invasive pest
  • Chemical ecology
  • Pesticides

Published Papers (16 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-16
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Growing Industries, Growing Invasions? The Case of the Argentine Ant in Vineyards of Northern Argentina
Insects 2018, 9(1), 11; doi:10.3390/insects9010011
Received: 10 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
PDF Full-text (881 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The invasive Argentine ant causes ecological and economic damage worldwide. In 2011, this species was reported in vineyards of Cafayate, a wine-producing town in the Andes, Argentina. While the local xeric climate is unsuitable for Argentine ants, populations could establish in association with
[...] Read more.
The invasive Argentine ant causes ecological and economic damage worldwide. In 2011, this species was reported in vineyards of Cafayate, a wine-producing town in the Andes, Argentina. While the local xeric climate is unsuitable for Argentine ants, populations could establish in association with vineyards where human activity and irrigation facilitate propagule introduction and survival. In 2013–2014, we combined extensive sampling of the area using ant-baits with monitoring of the change in land use and vineyard cultivated area over the past 15 years. Our results revealed that the species has thus far remained confined to a relatively isolated small area, owing to an effective barrier of dry shrublands surrounding the infested vineyards; yet the recent expansion of vineyard acreage in this region will soon connect this encapsulated area with the rest of the valley. When this happens, vulnerable ecosystems and the main local industry will be put at risk. This case provides a rare opportunity to study early invasion dynamics and reports, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, the Argentine ant in high altitude agroecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Influence of Grapevine Cultivar on the Second Generations of Lobesia botrana and Eupoecilia ambiguella
Insects 2018, 9(1), 8; doi:10.3390/insects9010008
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
PDF Full-text (850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Grapevine cultivar can affect susceptibility to Lobesia botrana and Eupoecilia ambiguella with important implications on control strategies. A four-year study was carried out in north-eastern Italy on 10 cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère, Chardonnay, Merlot, Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso, Rhine Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Terrano,
[...] Read more.
Grapevine cultivar can affect susceptibility to Lobesia botrana and Eupoecilia ambiguella with important implications on control strategies. A four-year study was carried out in north-eastern Italy on 10 cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère, Chardonnay, Merlot, Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso, Rhine Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Terrano, Tocai Friulano and Verduzzo Friulano) grown in the same vineyard to assess whether the cultivar affects second-generation population levels of the two vine moths and L. botrana larval age composition. The influence of bunch traits measured at the peak of egg hatching on demographic parameters was also evaluated. Over the four years, L. botrana significantly prevailed over E. ambiguella in nine cultivars. Chardonnay and Tocai Friulano were the most infested cultivars and Merlot was the least infested. At the sampling date, the age composition of L. botrana varied with cultivar, with the larvae being significantly older on Chardonnay and younger on Carménère, Merlot and Verduzzo Friulano. Older larval age was significantly associated with higher bunch compactness. Larval infestation was not significantly influenced by either bunch compactness or berry volume, which suggested a more important role for contact and volatile substances mostly originating from the berries. These results allow for the improvement of Integrated Pest Management strategy against vine moths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Investigating the (Mis)Match between Natural Pest Control Knowledge and the Intensity of Pesticide Use
Insects 2018, 9(1), 2; doi:10.3390/insects9010002
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 December 2017 / Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (1837 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Transforming modern agriculture towards both higher yields and greater sustainability is critical for preserving biodiversity in an increasingly populous and variable world. However, the intensity of agricultural practices varies strongly between crop systems. Given limited research capacity, it is crucial to focus efforts
[...] Read more.
Transforming modern agriculture towards both higher yields and greater sustainability is critical for preserving biodiversity in an increasingly populous and variable world. However, the intensity of agricultural practices varies strongly between crop systems. Given limited research capacity, it is crucial to focus efforts to increase sustainability in the crop systems that need it most. In this study, we investigate the match (or mismatch) between the intensity of pesticide use and the availability of knowledge on the ecosystem service of natural pest control across various crop systems. Using a systematic literature search on pest control and publicly available pesticide data, we find that pest control literature is not more abundant in crops where insecticide input per hectare is highest. Instead, pest control literature is most abundant, with the highest number of studies published, in crops with comparatively low insecticide input per hectare but with high world harvested area. These results suggest that a major increase of interest in agroecological research towards crops with high insecticide input, particularly cotton and horticultural crops such as citrus and high value-added vegetables, would help meet knowledge needs for a timely ecointensification of agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Non-Crop Host Sampling Yields Insights into Small-Scale Population Dynamics of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura)
Insects 2018, 9(1), 5; doi:10.3390/insects9010005
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 23 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (1271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Invasive, polyphagous crop pests subsist on a number of crop and non-crop resources. While knowing the full range of host species is important, a seasonal investigation into the use of non-crop plants adjacent to cropping systems provide key insights into some of the
[...] Read more.
Invasive, polyphagous crop pests subsist on a number of crop and non-crop resources. While knowing the full range of host species is important, a seasonal investigation into the use of non-crop plants adjacent to cropping systems provide key insights into some of the factors determining local population dynamics. This study investigated the infestation of non-crop plants by the invasive Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), a pest of numerous economically important stone and small fruit crops, by sampling fruit-producing non-crop hosts adjacent to commercial plantings weekly from June through November in central New York over a two-year period. We found D. suzukii infestation rates (number of flies emerged/kg fruit) peaked mid-August through early September, with Rubus allegheniensis Porter and Lonicera morrowii Asa Gray showing the highest average infestation in both years. Interannual infestation patterns were similar despite a lower number of adults caught in monitoring traps the second year, suggesting D. suzukii host use may be density independent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Control of Scaphoideus titanus with Natural Products in Organic Vineyards
Insects 2017, 8(4), 129; doi:10.3390/insects8040129
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 16 December 2017
PDF Full-text (1719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus is the vector of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis’, the causal agent of Flavescence dorée (FD) a key disease for European viticulture. In organic vineyards, the control of S. titanus relies mostly on the use of pyrethrins that have suboptimal
[...] Read more.
The leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus is the vector of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis’, the causal agent of Flavescence dorée (FD) a key disease for European viticulture. In organic vineyards, the control of S. titanus relies mostly on the use of pyrethrins that have suboptimal efficacy. During 2016, three field trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of kaolin, orange oil, insecticidal soap and spinosad against S. titanus nymphs, in comparison with pyrethrins. The activity of kaolin was evaluated also in the laboratory. In all field trials, kaolin had an efficacy against nymphs comparable to pyrethrins, while the other products were not effective. Laboratory results confirmed that kaolin increased nymph mortality. In organic vineyards, kaolin and pyrethrins are valuable tools in the management of FD. Nevertheless, their efficacy is lower compared to that of the synthetic insecticides used in conventional viticulture. Therefore, further research should be conducted in order to identify alternatives to synthetic insecticides for S. titanus control in the context of organic viticulture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Field Monitoring of Drosophila suzukii and Associated Communities in South Eastern France as a Pre-Requisite for Classical Biological Control
Insects 2017, 8(4), 124; doi:10.3390/insects8040124
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
PDF Full-text (1353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Ds), became a major economic pest for fruit production since its establishment in Europe and America. Among potential control methods, only classical biological control appears to be a mean of sustainably regulating Ds in both cultivated and
[...] Read more.
The spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Ds), became a major economic pest for fruit production since its establishment in Europe and America. Among potential control methods, only classical biological control appears to be a mean of sustainably regulating Ds in both cultivated and natural habitats. In the frame of risk assessment, pre-release surveys were carried out in a restricted but highly heterogeneous area in the south-east of France using traps and deliberate field exposures of Ds and D. melanogaster larvae/pupae. Although Ds abundance varied according to sampling methods, it was found to be pervasive and to produce offspring and adults in most conditions (spatial and seasonal). Its main limits are some specific abiotic conditions (i.e., desiccation) as well as interspecific competition. Indeed, Ds mostly co-occurred with D. busckii and D. hydei, probably due to common phenology and/or ecological requirements. These two species thus deserve more attention for risk assessment. The main indigenous parasitoids collected belonged to two pupal species, Trichopria cf drosophilae and Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae, but their presence was observed late in the autumn and mainly in cultivated areas. Results are discussed in a comparison of the methodological approaches for monitoring Drosophilids and the benefits-risks assessment of classical biological control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: Current Status and Prospects
Insects 2017, 8(4), 123; doi:10.3390/insects8040123
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 4 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
PDF Full-text (7900 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and
[...] Read more.
The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges. Here, we outline the CBB situation, and summarize the findings of growers, researchers, and extension professionals working with CBB in Hawaii. Recommendations for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for CBB in Hawaiian Islands and Puerto Rico include: (1) establish a CBB monitoring program, (2) synchronize applications of insecticides with peak flight activity of CBB especially during the early coffee season, (3) conduct efficient strip-picking as soon as possible after harvest and perform pre-harvest sanitation picks in CBB hotspots if needed, (4) establish protocols to prevent the escape of CBB from processing areas and when transporting berries during harvest, and (5) stump prune by blocks. Progress achieved includes the introduction of the mycoinsecticide Beauveria bassiana to coffee plantations, the coordination of area-wide CBB surveys, the establishment and augmentation of native beetle predators, and an observed reduction of CBB populations and increased coffee quality where IPM programs were established. However, CBB remains a challenge for coffee growers due to regional variability in CBB pressures, high costs, and labor issues, including a lack of training and awareness of CBB management practices among growers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Can Flowering Greencover Crops Promote Biological Control in German Vineyards?
Insects 2017, 8(4), 121; doi:10.3390/insects8040121
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
PDF Full-text (6858 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Greencover crops are widely recommended to provide predators and parasitoids with floral resources for improved pest control. We studied parasitism and predation of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) eggs and pupae as well as predatory mite abundances in an experimental vineyard
[...] Read more.
Greencover crops are widely recommended to provide predators and parasitoids with floral resources for improved pest control. We studied parasitism and predation of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) eggs and pupae as well as predatory mite abundances in an experimental vineyard with either one or two sowings of greencover crops compared to spontaneous vegetation. The co-occurrence between greencover flowering time and parasitoid activity differed greatly between the two study years. Parasitism was much higher when flowering and parasitoid activity coincided. While egg predation was enhanced by greencover crops, there were no significant benefits of greencover crops on parasitism of L. botrana eggs or pupae. Predatory mites did not show an as strong increase on grapevines in greencover crop plots as egg predation. Overall, our study demonstrates only limited pest control benefits of greencover crops. Given the strong within- and between year variation in natural enemy activity, studies across multiple years will be necessary to adequately describe the role of greencover crops for pest management and to identify the main predators of L. botrana eggs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Stability of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations in Pacific Northwest Pear Orchards Managed with Long-Term Mating Disruption for Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
Insects 2017, 8(4), 105; doi:10.3390/insects8040105
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
PDF Full-text (986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola, in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, codling moth Cydia pomonella, negatively impact natural enemies of pear psylla, thus causing outbreaks
[...] Read more.
This study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola, in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, codling moth Cydia pomonella, negatively impact natural enemies of pear psylla, thus causing outbreaks of this secondary pest. Hence, the objective of this study was to understand how codling moth management influences the abundance of pear psylla and its natural enemy complex in pear orchards managed under long-term codling moth mating disruption programs. We conducted this study within a pear orchard that had previously been under seasonal mating disruption for codling moth for eight years. We replicated two treatments, “natural enemy disrupt” (application of two combination sprays of spinetoram plus chlorantraniliprole timed against first-generation codling moth) and “natural enemy non-disrupt” four times in the orchard. Field sampling of psylla and natural enemies (i.e., lacewings, coccinellids, spiders, Campylomma verbasci, syrphid flies, earwigs) revealed that pear psylla populations remained well below treatment thresholds all season despite the reduced abundance of key pear psylla natural enemies in the natural enemy disrupt plots compared with the non-disrupt treatment. We speculate that pear psylla are difficult to disrupt when pear orchards are under long-term codling moth disruption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Resistance Management for Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in Florida
Insects 2017, 8(3), 103; doi:10.3390/insects8030103
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayma, is one of the most important pests in citrus production. The objective of this study was to evaluate D. citri resistance management with three insecticide rotations and compare them with no rotation and an untreated check.
[...] Read more.
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayma, is one of the most important pests in citrus production. The objective of this study was to evaluate D. citri resistance management with three insecticide rotations and compare them with no rotation and an untreated check. The different insecticides (modes of action) tested were: dimethoate, imidacloprid, diflubenzuron, abamectin 3% + thiamethoxam 13.9%, and fenpropathrin. Eggs, nymph, and adult psyllids were counted weekly. Five insecticide applications were made in 2016. Insecticide susceptibility was determined by direct comparison with a laboratory susceptible population and field populations before and after all treatments were applied. Rankings of eggs, nymphs, and adults counted in treated plots were significantly lower than in the untreated control plots after each application. Initially, the resistance ratio (RR50) for each rotation model, as compared with laboratory susceptible strain and the field population before application, was less than 5.76 and 4.31, respectively. However, after five applications with dimethoate, the RR50 using the laboratory and pre-treatment field populations was 42.34 and 34.74, respectively. Our results indicate that effectively rotating modes of action can delay and/or prevent development of insecticide resistance in populations of D. citri. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Getting More Power from Your Flowers: Multi-Functional Flower Strips Enhance Pollinators and Pest Control Agents in Apple Orchards
Insects 2017, 8(3), 101; doi:10.3390/insects8030101
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
PDF Full-text (2194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that
[...] Read more.
Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies) and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1) pollinators (‘concealed-nectar plants’); (2) natural enemies (‘open-nectar plants’); or (3) both groups concurrently (i.e., ‘multi-functional’ mix). Flower strips were established in alleyways of four orchards and compared to control alleyways (no flowers). Pollinator (e.g., bees) and natural enemy (e.g., parasitoid wasps, predatory flies and beetles) visitation to flower strips, alongside measures of pest control (aphid colony densities, sentinel prey predation), and fruit production, were monitored in orchards over two consecutive growing seasons. Targeted flower strips attracted either pollinators or natural enemies, whereas mixed flower strips attracted both groups in similar abundance to targeted mixes. Natural enemy densities on apple trees were higher in plots containing open-nectar plants compared to other treatments, but effects were stronger for non-aphidophagous taxa. Predation of sentinel prey was enhanced in all flowering plots compared to controls but pest aphid densities and fruit yield were unaffected by flower strips. We conclude that ‘multi-functional’ flower strips that contain flowering plant species with opposing floral traits can provide nectar and pollen for both pollinators and natural enemies, but further work is required to understand their potential for improving pest control services and yield in cider apple orchards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Comparative Programs for Arthropod, Disease and Weed Management in New York Organic Apples
Insects 2017, 8(3), 96; doi:10.3390/insects8030096
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
PDF Full-text (990 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From
[...] Read more.
Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of apples in Geneva, New York. Arthropod and disease management regimens were characterized as Advanced Organic, Minimal Organic, or Untreated Control. Results varied by year and variety, but, in general, the Advanced program was more effective than the Minimal program in preventing damage from internal-feeding Lepidoptera, plum curculio, and obliquebanded leafroller, and less effective than the Minimal program against damage by foliar insects. Both organic programs provided comparable control of sooty blotch, cedar apple rust, and fire blight, with some variability across cultivars and years. The advanced selection CC1009 and Modi seemed to possess complete resistance to cedar apple rust, while Pristine had partial resistance. For weed control, bark chip mulch, organic soap sprays, and limonene sprays tended to be most effective, while mechanical tillage and flame weeding had lower success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Minimal Pruning and Reduced Plant Protection Promote Predatory Mites in Grapevine
Insects 2017, 8(3), 86; doi:10.3390/insects8030086
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Improving natural pest control by promoting high densities of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an effective way to prevent damage by pest mites (e.g., Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae) and other arthropod taxa that can cause serious damage to vineyards. Here, we investigate the influence of
[...] Read more.
Improving natural pest control by promoting high densities of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an effective way to prevent damage by pest mites (e.g., Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae) and other arthropod taxa that can cause serious damage to vineyards. Here, we investigate the influence of innovative management on predatory mite densities. We compare (i) full versus reduced fungicide applications and (ii) minimal pruning versus a traditional trellis pruning system in four fungus-resistant grapevine varieties. As predatory mites also feed on fungus mycelium, we assessed fungal infection of grapevine leaves in the experimental vineyard. Predatory mites were significantly more abundant in both minimal pruning and under reduced plant protection. Increases in predatory mites appeared to be independent of fungal infection, suggesting mostly direct effects of reduced fungicides and minimal pruning. In contrast to predatory mites, pest mites did not increase under innovative management. Thus, conditions for natural pest control are improved in fungus-resistant grapevines and under minimal pruning, which adds to other advantages such as environmental safety and reduced production cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Sublethal Effects in Pest Management: A Surrogate Species Perspective on Fruit Fly Control
Insects 2017, 8(3), 78; doi:10.3390/insects8030078
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 29 July 2017
PDF Full-text (651 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tephritid fruit flies are economically important orchard pests globally. While much effort has focused on controlling individual species with a combination of pesticides and biological control, less attention has been paid to managing assemblages of species. Although several tephritid species may co-occur in
[...] Read more.
Tephritid fruit flies are economically important orchard pests globally. While much effort has focused on controlling individual species with a combination of pesticides and biological control, less attention has been paid to managing assemblages of species. Although several tephritid species may co-occur in orchards/cultivated areas, especially in mixed-cropping schemes, their responses to pesticides may be highly variable. Furthermore, predictive efforts about toxicant effects are generally based on acute toxicity, with little or no regard to long-term population effects. Using a simple matrix model parameterized with life history data, we quantified the responses of several tephritid species to the sublethal effects of a toxicant acting on fecundity. Using a critical threshold to determine levels of fecundity reduction below which species are driven to local extinction, we determined that threshold levels vary widely for the three tephritid species. In particular, Bactrocera dorsalis was the most robust of the three species, followed by Ceratitis capitata, and then B. cucurbitae, suggesting individual species responses should be taken into account when planning for area-wide pest control. The rank-order of susceptibility contrasts with results from several field/lab studies testing the same species, suggesting that considering a combination of life history traits and individual species susceptibility is necessary for understanding population responses of species assemblages to toxicant exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Companion Plants for Aphid Pest Management
Insects 2017, 8(4), 112; doi:10.3390/insects8040112
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
PDF Full-text (827 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A potential strategy for controlling pests is through the use of “companion plants” within a crop system. This strategy has been used in several trials to fight against a major crop insect pest: the aphid. We reviewed the literature to highlight the major
[...] Read more.
A potential strategy for controlling pests is through the use of “companion plants” within a crop system. This strategy has been used in several trials to fight against a major crop insect pest: the aphid. We reviewed the literature to highlight the major mechanisms by which a companion plant may act. Trials carried out under laboratory or field conditions revealed that companion plants operate through several mechanisms. A companion plant may be associated with a target crop for various reasons. Firstly, it can attract aphids and draw them away from their host plants. Secondly, it can alter the recognition of the host plant. This effect is mostly attributed to companion plant volatiles since they disturb the aphid host plant location, and additionally they may react chemically and physiologically with the host plant, making it an unsuitable host for aphids. Thirdly, it can attract natural enemies by providing shelter and food resources. In this review, the feasibility of using companion plants is discussed. We conclude that many factors need to be taken into account for a successful companion plant strategy. For the best long-term results, companion plant strategies have to be combined with other alternative approaches against aphids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Review of Ecologically-Based Pest Management in California Vineyards
Insects 2017, 8(4), 108; doi:10.3390/insects8040108
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
PDF Full-text (1141 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Grape growers in California utilize a variety of biological, cultural, and chemical approaches for the management of insect and mite pests in vineyards. This combination of strategies falls within the integrated pest management (IPM) framework, which is considered to be the dominant pest
[...] Read more.
Grape growers in California utilize a variety of biological, cultural, and chemical approaches for the management of insect and mite pests in vineyards. This combination of strategies falls within the integrated pest management (IPM) framework, which is considered to be the dominant pest management paradigm in vineyards. While the adoption of IPM has led to notable and significant reductions in the environmental impacts of grape production, some growers are becoming interested in the use of an explicitly non-pesticide approach to pest management that is broadly referred to as ecologically-based pest management (EBPM). Essentially a subset of IPM strategies, EBPM places strong emphasis on practices such as habitat management, natural enemy augmentation and conservation, and animal integration. Here, we summarize the range and known efficacy of EBPM practices utilized in California vineyards, followed by a discussion of research needs and future policy directions. EBPM should in no way be seen in opposition, or as an alternative to the IPM framework. Rather, the further development of more reliable EBPM practices could contribute to the robustness of IPM strategies available to grape growers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top