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Insects 2017, 8(3), 78;

Sublethal Effects in Pest Management: A Surrogate Species Perspective on Fruit Fly Control

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Center, California State University, Monterey Bay, Seaside, CA 93955, USA
Daniel K. Inouye, U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 64 Nowelo St., Hilo, HI 96720, USA
R.P. Authement College of Sciences , University of Louisiana at Lafayette, 201 Oliver Hall, P.O. Box 43649, Lafeyette, LA 70504, USA
Washington State University Puyallup Research & Extension Center, 2606 W. Pioneer Ave, Puyallup, WA 98371, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alberto Pozzebon, Carlo Duso, Gregory M. Loeb and Geoff M. Gurr
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 29 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
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Tephritid fruit flies are economically important orchard pests globally. While much effort has focused on controlling individual species with a combination of pesticides and biological control, less attention has been paid to managing assemblages of species. Although several tephritid species may co-occur in orchards/cultivated areas, especially in mixed-cropping schemes, their responses to pesticides may be highly variable. Furthermore, predictive efforts about toxicant effects are generally based on acute toxicity, with little or no regard to long-term population effects. Using a simple matrix model parameterized with life history data, we quantified the responses of several tephritid species to the sublethal effects of a toxicant acting on fecundity. Using a critical threshold to determine levels of fecundity reduction below which species are driven to local extinction, we determined that threshold levels vary widely for the three tephritid species. In particular, Bactrocera dorsalis was the most robust of the three species, followed by Ceratitis capitata, and then B. cucurbitae, suggesting individual species responses should be taken into account when planning for area-wide pest control. The rank-order of susceptibility contrasts with results from several field/lab studies testing the same species, suggesting that considering a combination of life history traits and individual species susceptibility is necessary for understanding population responses of species assemblages to toxicant exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lefkovitch matrix; surrogate species; Tephritidae Lefkovitch matrix; surrogate species; Tephritidae

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Banks, J.E.; Vargas, R.I.; Ackleh, A.S.; Stark, J.D. Sublethal Effects in Pest Management: A Surrogate Species Perspective on Fruit Fly Control. Insects 2017, 8, 78.

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