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Insects 2017, 8(4), 105; doi:10.3390/insects8040105

Stability of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations in Pacific Northwest Pear Orchards Managed with Long-Term Mating Disruption for Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

1
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt Blvd., Nashville, TN 37209, USA
2
Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, Washington State University, 1100 N. Western Ave., Wenatchee, WA 98801, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alberto Pozzebon, Carlo Duso, Gregory M. Loeb and Geoff M. Gurr
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [986 KB, uploaded 30 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

This study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola, in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, codling moth Cydia pomonella, negatively impact natural enemies of pear psylla, thus causing outbreaks of this secondary pest. Hence, the objective of this study was to understand how codling moth management influences the abundance of pear psylla and its natural enemy complex in pear orchards managed under long-term codling moth mating disruption programs. We conducted this study within a pear orchard that had previously been under seasonal mating disruption for codling moth for eight years. We replicated two treatments, “natural enemy disrupt” (application of two combination sprays of spinetoram plus chlorantraniliprole timed against first-generation codling moth) and “natural enemy non-disrupt” four times in the orchard. Field sampling of psylla and natural enemies (i.e., lacewings, coccinellids, spiders, Campylomma verbasci, syrphid flies, earwigs) revealed that pear psylla populations remained well below treatment thresholds all season despite the reduced abundance of key pear psylla natural enemies in the natural enemy disrupt plots compared with the non-disrupt treatment. We speculate that pear psylla are difficult to disrupt when pear orchards are under long-term codling moth disruption. View Full-Text
Keywords: pear psylla; codling moth; natural enemies; pear pest insects; mating disruption; biological control pear psylla; codling moth; natural enemies; pear pest insects; mating disruption; biological control
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Amarasekare, K.G.; Shearer, P.W. Stability of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations in Pacific Northwest Pear Orchards Managed with Long-Term Mating Disruption for Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Insects 2017, 8, 105.

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