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Special Issue "Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Material Sciences and Nanotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 April 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Stuart Goodman

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Devices are commonly implanted during orthopaedic surgical procedures for fracture fixation, spine stabilization, total joint replacement and in numerous other subspecialties. Traditionally these implants have been made of non-biodegradable metals, polymer, and ceramics, and more recently, fully or partially biodegradable materials. These devices must interact with host tissues to obtain a final desired clinical goal with few or no adverse events. More recently, it has been realized that surface modifications and coatings of an orthopaedic device may improve the chances of achieving the desired outcome. Examples include coating of devices implanted into bone with bioceramics, growth factors and other molecules to accelerate fixation and implant osseointegration, coatings that deliver molecules to prevent or combat infection and composite tissue coated implants.

This special issue on "Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implants" for the International Journal of Molecular Sciences will focus on such novel coatings for orthopaedic implants, including basic and applied science and their potential clinical application. This information will help further the scientific principles underlying coating technology and their applications in the hope that patient care will be enhanced.

Prof. Dr. Stuart Goodman
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • orthopaedic surgery
  • implant coatings
  • osseointegration
  • orthopaedic infection
  • surface modification

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Calcium and Zinc Containing Bactericidal Glass Coatings for Biomedical Metallic Substrates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(7), 13030-13044; doi:10.3390/ijms150713030
Received: 25 April 2014 / Revised: 30 June 2014 / Accepted: 1 July 2014 / Published: 23 July 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2367 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present work presents new bactericidal coatings, based on two families of non-toxic, antimicrobial glasses belonging to B2O3–SiO2–Na2O–ZnO and SiO2–Na2O–Al2O3–CaO–B2O3 systems.Free of cracking,
[...] Read more.
The present work presents new bactericidal coatings, based on two families of non-toxic, antimicrobial glasses belonging to B2O3–SiO2–Na2O–ZnO and SiO2–Na2O–Al2O3–CaO–B2O3 systems. Free of cracking, single layer direct coatings on different biomedical metallic substrates (titanium alloy, Nb, Ta, and stainless steel) have been developed. Thermal expansion mismatch was adjusted by changing glass composition of the glass type, as well as the firing atmosphere (air or Ar) according to the biomedical metallic substrates. Formation of bubbles in some of the glassy coatings has been rationalized considering the reactions that take place at the different metal/coating interfaces. All the obtained coatings were proven to be strongly antibacterial versus Escherichia coli (>4 log). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant)
Open AccessArticle Improved Fibroblast Functionalities by Microporous Pattern Fabricated by Microelectromechanical Systems
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(7), 12998-13009; doi:10.3390/ijms150712998
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 31 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities
[...] Read more.
Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities was observed. The results show that the microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm did not influence the initial adherent fibroblast number; however, those with diameters of 40 and 50 µm improved the spread, actin stress fiber organization, proliferation and fibronectin secretion of the fibroblasts. The microporous structures with micropore diameters of 40–50 µm may be promising for application in the percutaneous part of an implant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant)
Open AccessArticle Alternating Current Electrophoretic Deposition of Antibacterial Bioactive Glass-Chitosan Composite Coatings
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(7), 12231-12242; doi:10.3390/ijms150712231
Received: 5 May 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 16 June 2014 / Published: 9 July 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (3939 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alternating current (AC) electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was used to produce multifunctional composite coatings combining bioactive glass (BG) particles and chitosan. BG particles of two different sizes were used, i.e., 2 μm and 20–80 nm in average diameter. The parameter optimization and characterization
[...] Read more.
Alternating current (AC) electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was used to produce multifunctional composite coatings combining bioactive glass (BG) particles and chitosan. BG particles of two different sizes were used, i.e., 2 μm and 20–80 nm in average diameter. The parameter optimization and characterization of the coatings was conducted by visual inspection and by adhesion strength tests. The optimized coatings were investigated in terms of their hydroxyapatite (HA) forming ability in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 21 days. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results showed the successful HA formation on the coatings after 21 days. The first investigations were conducted on planar stainless steel sheets. In addition, scaffolds made from a TiAl4V6 alloy were considered to show the feasibility of coating of three dimensional structures by EPD. Because both BG and chitosan are antibacterial materials, the antibacterial properties of the as-produced coatings were investigated using E. coli bacteria cells. It was shown that the BG particle size has a strong influence on the antibacterial properties of the coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant)
Open AccessArticle On Interlayer Stability and High-Cycle Simulator Performance of Diamond-Like Carbon Layers for Articulating Joint Replacements
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10527-10540; doi:10.3390/ijms150610527
Received: 28 April 2014 / Revised: 29 April 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings have been proven to be an excellent choice for wear reduction in many technical applications. However, for successful adaption to the orthopaedic field, layer performance, stability and adhesion in physiologically relevant setups are crucial and not consistently investigated.
[...] Read more.
Diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings have been proven to be an excellent choice for wear reduction in many technical applications. However, for successful adaption to the orthopaedic field, layer performance, stability and adhesion in physiologically relevant setups are crucial and not consistently investigated. In vitro wear testing as well as adequate corrosion tests of interfaces and interlayers are of great importance to verify the long term stability of DLC coated load bearing implants in the human body. DLC coatings were deposited on articulating lumbar spinal disks made of CoCr28Mo6 biomedical implant alloy using a plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) process. As an adhesion promoting interlayer, tantalum films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. Wear tests of coated and uncoated implants were performed in physiological solution up to a maximum of 101 million articulation cycles with an amplitude of ±2° and −3/+6° in successive intervals at a preload of 1200 N. The implants were characterized by gravimetry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cross section scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. It is shown that DLC coated surfaces with uncontaminated tantalum interlayers perform very well and no corrosive or mechanical failure could be observed. This also holds true in tests featuring overload and third-body wear by cortical bone chips present in the bearing pairs. Regarding the interlayer tolerance towards interlayer contamination (oxygen), limits for initiation of potential failure modes were established. It was found that mechanical failure is the most critical aspect and this mode is hypothetically linked to the α-β tantalum phase switch induced by increasing oxygen levels as observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is concluded that DLC coatings are a feasible candidate for near zero wear articulations on implants, potentially even surpassing the performance of ceramic vs. ceramic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant)
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Calcium Phosphate Matrix of FGF-2-Apatite Composite Layers Contributes to Their Biological Effects
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10252-10270; doi:10.3390/ijms150610252
Received: 25 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 May 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
PDF Full-text (7569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to fabricate fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2-apatite composite layers on titanium (Ti) pins in one step at 25 °C using a supersaturated calcium phosphate (CaP) solution, and to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and biological effects of the
[...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to fabricate fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2-apatite composite layers on titanium (Ti) pins in one step at 25 °C using a supersaturated calcium phosphate (CaP) solution, and to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and biological effects of the coated Ti pins compared with coated Ti pins fabricated at 37 °C. Ti pins were immersed in a supersaturated CaP solution containing 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 µg/mL FGF-2 at 25 °C for 24 h (25F0.5, 25F1.0, and 25F2.0) or containing 4.0 µg/mL FGF-2 at 37 °C for 48 h (37F4.0). Except for the 25F0.5, the chemical compositions and the mitogenic activity levels of FGF-2 of the composite layers formed by these two methods were similar, except for the Ca/P molar ratio, which was markedly smaller at 25 °C (1.55–1.56 ± 0.01–0.02, p = 0.0008–0.0045) than at 37 °C (1.67 ± 0.11). Thus, either the apatite was less mature or the amount of amorphous calcium phosphate was higher in the composite layer formed at 25 °C. In vivo, the pin tract infection rate by visual inspection for 37F4.0 (45%) was lower than that for 25F1.0 (80%, p = 0.0213), and the rate of osteomyelitis for 37F4.0 (35%) was lower than that for 25F0.5 (75%, p = 0.0341). The extraction torque for 37F4.0 (0.276 ± 0.117 Nm) was higher than that for 25F0.5 (0.192 ± 0.117 Nm, p = 0.0142) and that for 25F1.0 (0.176 ± 0.133 Nm, p = 0.0079). The invasion rate of S. aureus for 37F4.0 (35%) was lower than that for 25F0.5 (75%, p = 0.0110). On the whole, the FGF-2-apatite composite layer formed at 25 °C tended to be less effective at improving fixation strength in the bone-pin interface and resisting pin tract infections. These results suggest that the chemistry of the calcium phosphate matrix that embeds FGF-2, in addition to FGF-2 content and activity, has a significant impact on composite infection resistance and fixation strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant)
Open AccessArticle Stimulation of Bone Healing by Sustained Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP-2) Delivery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 8539-8552; doi:10.3390/ijms15058539
Received: 27 February 2014 / Revised: 24 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 May 2014 / Published: 14 May 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein2 (BMP-2) incorporated in a polymeric implant coating on bone healing. In vitro analysis revealed a sustained, but incomplete BMP-2 release until Day 42. For the
[...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein2 (BMP-2) incorporated in a polymeric implant coating on bone healing. In vitro analysis revealed a sustained, but incomplete BMP-2 release until Day 42. For the in vivo study, the rat tibia osteotomy was stabilized either with control or BMP-2 coated wires, and the healing progress was followed by micro computed tomography (µCT), biomechanical testing and histology at Days 10, 28, 42 and 84. MicroCT showed an accelerated formation of mineralized callus, as well as remodeling and an increase of mineralized/total callus volume (p = 0.021) at Day 42 in the BMP-2 group compared to the control. Histology revealed an increased callus mineralization at Days 42 and 84 (p = 0.006) with reduced cartilage at Day 84 (p = 0.004) in the BMP-2 group. Biomechanical stiffness was significantly higher in the BMP-2 group (p = 0.045) at Day 42. In summary, bone healing was enhanced after sustained BMP-2 application compared to the control. Using the same drug delivery system, but a burst release of BMP-2, a previous published study showed a similar positive effect on bone healing. Distinct differences in the healing outcome might be explained due to the different BMP release kinetics and dosages. However, further studies are necessary to adapt the optimal release profiles to physiological mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Osseointegration of Titanium Alloyed Implants Modified by Plasma Polymerization
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2454-2464; doi:10.3390/ijms15022454
Received: 30 December 2013 / Revised: 27 January 2014 / Accepted: 30 January 2014 / Published: 11 February 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (473 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
By means of plasma polymerization, positively charged, nanometre-thin coatings can be applied to implant surfaces. The aim of the present study was to quantify the adhesion of human bone cells in vitro and to evaluate the bone ongrowth in vivo, on titanium
[...] Read more.
By means of plasma polymerization, positively charged, nanometre-thin coatings can be applied to implant surfaces. The aim of the present study was to quantify the adhesion of human bone cells in vitro and to evaluate the bone ongrowth in vivo, on titanium surfaces modified by plasma polymer coatings. Different implant surface configurations were examined: titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) coated with plasma-polymerized allylamine (PPAAm) and plasma-polymerized ethylenediamine (PPEDA) versus uncoated. Shear stress on human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells was investigated in vitro using a spinning disc device. Furthermore, bone-to-implant contact (BIC) was evaluated in vivo. Custom-made conical titanium implants were inserted at the medial tibia of female Sprague-Dawley rats. After a follow-up of six weeks, the BIC was determined by means of histomorphometry. The quantification of cell adhesion showed a significantly higher shear stress for MG-63 cells on PPAAm and PPEDA compared to uncoated Ti6Al4V. Uncoated titanium alloyed implants showed the lowest BIC (40.4%). Implants with PPAAm coating revealed a clear but not significant increase of the BIC (58.5%) and implants with PPEDA a significantly increased BIC (63.7%). In conclusion, plasma polymer coatings demonstrate enhanced cell adhesion and bone ongrowth compared to uncoated titanium surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant)
Open AccessArticle Improved Bonding of Partially Osteomyelitic Bone to Titanium Pins Owing to Biomimetic Coating of Apatite
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(12), 24366-24379; doi:10.3390/ijms141224366
Received: 16 November 2013 / Revised: 5 December 2013 / Accepted: 11 December 2013 / Published: 13 December 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (635 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Increased fixation strength of the bone-pin interface is important for inhibiting pin loosening after external fixation. In a previous study, an apatite (Ap) layer was formed on anodically oxidized titanium (Ti) pins by immersing them in an infusion fluid-based supersaturated calcium phosphate solution
[...] Read more.
Increased fixation strength of the bone-pin interface is important for inhibiting pin loosening after external fixation. In a previous study, an apatite (Ap) layer was formed on anodically oxidized titanium (Ti) pins by immersing them in an infusion fluid-based supersaturated calcium phosphate solution at 37 °C for 48 h. In the present study, an Ap layer was also successfully formed using a one-step method at 25 °C for 48 h in an infusion fluid-based supersaturated calcium phosphate solution, which is clinically useful due to the immersion temperature. After percutaneous implantation in a proximal tibial metaphysis for four weeks in rabbits (n = 20), the Ti pin coated with the Ap layer showed significantly increased extraction torque compared with that of an uncoated Ti screw even with partial osteomyelitis present, owing to dense bone formation on the Ap layer in the cortical and medullary cavity regions. When the infection status was changed from “no osteomyelitis” to “partial osteomyelitis,” the extraction torque in the Ap group with “partial osteomyelitis” was almost identical to that for “no osteomyelitis” cases. These results suggest that the Ap layer formed by the room temperature process could effectively improve the fixation strength of the Ti pin for external fixation clinically even with partial osteomyelitis present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant)
Open AccessArticle Formation of Apatite Coatings on an Artificial Ligament Using a Plasma- and Precursor-Assisted Biomimetic Process
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(9), 19155-19168; doi:10.3390/ijms140919155
Received: 28 August 2013 / Revised: 8 September 2013 / Accepted: 11 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A plasma- and precursor-assisted biomimetic process utilizing plasma and alternate dipping treatments was applied to a Leed-Keio artificial ligament to produce a thin coating of apatite in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution. Following plasma surface modification, the specimen was alternately dipped in calcium
[...] Read more.
A plasma- and precursor-assisted biomimetic process utilizing plasma and alternate dipping treatments was applied to a Leed-Keio artificial ligament to produce a thin coating of apatite in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution. Following plasma surface modification, the specimen was alternately dipped in calcium and phosphate ion solutions three times (alternate dipping treatment) to create a precoating containing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) which is an apatite precursor. To grow an apatite layer on the ACP precoating, the ACP-precoated specimen was immersed for 24 h in a simulated body fluid with ion concentrations approximately equal to those in human blood plasma. The plasma surface modification was necessary to create an adequate apatite coating and to improve the coating adhesion depending on the plasma power density. The apatite coating prepared using the optimized conditions formed a thin-film that covered the entire surface of the artificial ligament. The resulting apatite-coated artificial ligament should exhibit improved osseointegration within the bone tunnel and possesses great potential for use in ligament reconstructions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant)

Review

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Open AccessReview Antibacterial Surface Treatment for Orthopaedic Implants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(8), 13849-13880; doi:10.3390/ijms150813849
Received: 30 December 2013 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 11 August 2014
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (7922 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is expected that the projected increased usage of implantable devices in medicine will result in a natural rise in the number of infections related to these cases. Some patients are unable to autonomously prevent formation of biofilm on implant surfaces. Suppression of
[...] Read more.
It is expected that the projected increased usage of implantable devices in medicine will result in a natural rise in the number of infections related to these cases. Some patients are unable to autonomously prevent formation of biofilm on implant surfaces. Suppression of the local peri-implant immune response is an important contributory factor. Substantial avascular scar tissue encountered during revision joint replacement surgery places these cases at an especially high risk of periprosthetic joint infection. A critical pathogenic event in the process of biofilm formation is bacterial adhesion. Prevention of biomaterial-associated infections should be concurrently focused on at least two targets: inhibition of biofilm formation and minimizing local immune response suppression. Current knowledge of antimicrobial surface treatments suitable for prevention of prosthetic joint infection is reviewed. Several surface treatment modalities have been proposed. Minimizing bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation inhibition, and bactericidal approaches are discussed. The ultimate anti-infective surface should be “smart” and responsive to even the lowest bacterial load. While research in this field is promising, there appears to be a great discrepancy between proposed and clinically implemented strategies, and there is urgent need for translational science focusing on this topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant)
Open AccessReview Novel Bioactive Antimicrobial Lignin Containing Coatings on Titanium Obtained by Electrophoretic Deposition
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(7), 12294-12322; doi:10.3390/ijms150712294
Received: 5 May 2014 / Revised: 31 May 2014 / Accepted: 1 July 2014 / Published: 11 July 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1647 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is the most suitable biocompatible material for bone implant coatings; its brittleness, however, is a major obstacle, and the reason why research focuses on creating composites with biopolymers. Organosolv lignin (Lig) is used for the production of composite coatings, and these
[...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is the most suitable biocompatible material for bone implant coatings; its brittleness, however, is a major obstacle, and the reason why research focuses on creating composites with biopolymers. Organosolv lignin (Lig) is used for the production of composite coatings, and these composites were examined in this study. Titanium substrate is a key biomedical material due to its well-known properties, but infections of the implantation site still impose a serious threat. One approach to prevent infection is to improve antimicrobial properties of the coating material. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag/HAP) and HAP coatings on titanium were obtained by an electrophoretic deposition method in order to control deposited coating mass and morphology by varying applied voltage and deposition time. The effect of lignin on microstructure, morphology and thermal behavior of biocomposite coatings was investigated. The results showed that higher lignin concentrations protect the HAP lattice during sintering, improving coating stability. The corrosion stability was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C. Newly formed plate-shaped carbonate-HAP was detected, indicating enhanced bioactive performance. The antimicrobial efficiency of Ag/HAP/Lig was confirmed by its higher reduction of bacteria Staphylococcus aureus TL (S. aureus TL) than of HAP/Lig coating. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that both coatings can be classified as non-toxic against healthy immunocompetent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant)
Open AccessReview Bioactive Coatings for Orthopaedic Implants—Recent Trends in Development of Implant Coatings
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(7), 11878-11921; doi:10.3390/ijms150711878
Received: 25 April 2014 / Revised: 11 June 2014 / Accepted: 16 June 2014 / Published: 4 July 2014
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (4778 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Joint replacement is a major orthopaedic procedure used to treat joint osteoarthritis. Aseptic loosening and infection are the two most significant causes of prosthetic implant failure. The ideal implant should be able to promote osteointegration, deter bacterial adhesion and minimize prosthetic infection. Recent
[...] Read more.
Joint replacement is a major orthopaedic procedure used to treat joint osteoarthritis. Aseptic loosening and infection are the two most significant causes of prosthetic implant failure. The ideal implant should be able to promote osteointegration, deter bacterial adhesion and minimize prosthetic infection. Recent developments in material science and cell biology have seen the development of new orthopaedic implant coatings to address these issues. Coatings consisting of bioceramics, extracellular matrix proteins, biological peptides or growth factors impart bioactivity and biocompatibility to the metallic surface of conventional orthopaedic prosthesis that promote bone ingrowth and differentiation of stem cells into osteoblasts leading to enhanced osteointegration of the implant. Furthermore, coatings such as silver, nitric oxide, antibiotics, antiseptics and antimicrobial peptides with anti-microbial properties have also been developed, which show promise in reducing bacterial adhesion and prosthetic infections. This review summarizes some of the recent developments in coatings for orthopaedic implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant)
Open AccessReview BMP-Functionalised Coatings to Promote Osteogenesis for Orthopaedic Implants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10150-10168; doi:10.3390/ijms150610150
Received: 17 April 2014 / Revised: 13 May 2014 / Accepted: 22 May 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The loss of bone integrity can significantly compromise the aesthetics and mobility of patients and can be treated using orthopaedic implants. Over the past decades; various orthopaedic implants; such as allografts; xenografts and synthetic materials; have been developed and widely used in clinical
[...] Read more.
The loss of bone integrity can significantly compromise the aesthetics and mobility of patients and can be treated using orthopaedic implants. Over the past decades; various orthopaedic implants; such as allografts; xenografts and synthetic materials; have been developed and widely used in clinical practice. However; most of these materials lack intrinsic osteoinductivity and thus cannot induce bone formation. Consequently; osteoinductive functionalisation of orthopaedic implants is needed to promote local osteogenesis and implant osteointegration. For this purpose; bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-functionalised coatings have proven to be a simple and effective strategy. In this review; we summarise the current knowledge and recent advances regarding BMP-functionalised coatings for orthopaedic implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant)
Open AccessReview Current Strategies to Improve the Bioactivity of PEEK
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 5426-5445; doi:10.3390/ijms15045426
Received: 3 January 2014 / Revised: 14 March 2014 / Accepted: 24 March 2014 / Published: 28 March 2014
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (376 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The synthetic thermoplastic polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is becoming a popular component of clinical orthopedic and spinal applications, but its practical use suffers from several limitations. Although PEEK is biocompatible, chemically stable, radiolucent and has an elastic modulus similar to that of normal human
[...] Read more.
The synthetic thermoplastic polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is becoming a popular component of clinical orthopedic and spinal applications, but its practical use suffers from several limitations. Although PEEK is biocompatible, chemically stable, radiolucent and has an elastic modulus similar to that of normal human bone, it is biologically inert, preventing good integration with adjacent bone tissues upon implantation. Recent efforts have focused on increasing the bioactivity of PEEK to improve the bone-implant interface. Two main strategies have been used to overcome the inert character of PEEK. One approach is surface modification to activate PEEK through surface treatment alone or in combination with a surface coating. Another strategy is to prepare bioactive PEEK composites by impregnating bioactive materials into PEEK substrate. Researchers believe that modified bioactive PEEK will have a wide range of orthopedic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant)

Other

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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Mutsuzaki, H., et al. Improved Bonding of Partially Osteomyelitic Bone to Titanium Pins Owing to Biomimetic Coating of Apatite. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 24366–24379.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 9789-9792; doi:10.3390/ijms15069789
Received: 25 April 2014 / Accepted: 30 April 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
PDF Full-text (818 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the original version of the manuscript [1] there was an inadvertent error. The words “25 °C for 48 h” should be replaced with “25 °C for 24 h”. The authors carried out the coating experiments at 25 °C for 1, 3, 6,
[...] Read more.
In the original version of the manuscript [1] there was an inadvertent error. The words “25 °C for 48 h” should be replaced with “25 °C for 24 h”. The authors carried out the coating experiments at 25 °C for 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. The apatite coatings formed at 25 °C for 24 and 48 h were found to be identical in physicochemical nature, which was revealed by SEM, EDX, XRD and chemical analysis. Thus, in the animal experiments, the authors used apatite-coated Ti pins fabricated at 25 °C for 24 h. Several corrections are thus required in the abstract, the main text, the figure legends, and the figures (Table 1). The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience this may have caused to readers of the journal. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant)

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