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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(9), 19155-19168; doi:10.3390/ijms140919155
Article

Formation of Apatite Coatings on an Artificial Ligament Using a Plasma- and Precursor-Assisted Biomimetic Process

1
, 2
, 3
 and 2,*
1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394, Japan 2 Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 4, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8562, Japan 3 Human Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 6, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8566, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 August 2013 / Revised: 8 September 2013 / Accepted: 11 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant)
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Abstract

A plasma- and precursor-assisted biomimetic process utilizing plasma and alternate dipping treatments was applied to a Leed-Keio artificial ligament to produce a thin coating of apatite in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution. Following plasma surface modification, the specimen was alternately dipped in calcium and phosphate ion solutions three times (alternate dipping treatment) to create a precoating containing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) which is an apatite precursor. To grow an apatite layer on the ACP precoating, the ACP-precoated specimen was immersed for 24 h in a simulated body fluid with ion concentrations approximately equal to those in human blood plasma. The plasma surface modification was necessary to create an adequate apatite coating and to improve the coating adhesion depending on the plasma power density. The apatite coating prepared using the optimized conditions formed a thin-film that covered the entire surface of the artificial ligament. The resulting apatite-coated artificial ligament should exhibit improved osseointegration within the bone tunnel and possesses great potential for use in ligament reconstructions.
Keywords: plasma surface modification; alternate dipping treatment; apatite; simulated body fluid (SBF); artificial ligament plasma surface modification; alternate dipping treatment; apatite; simulated body fluid (SBF); artificial ligament
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Mutsuzaki, H.; Yokoyama, Y.; Ito, A.; Oyane, A. Formation of Apatite Coatings on an Artificial Ligament Using a Plasma- and Precursor-Assisted Biomimetic Process. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 19155-19168.

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