Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(7), 12294-12322; doi:10.3390/ijms150712294
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Novel Bioactive Antimicrobial Lignin Containing Coatings on Titanium Obtained by Electrophoretic Deposition

1email, 1email, 2email, 2email, 1email and 3,* email
Received: 5 May 2014; in revised form: 31 May 2014 / Accepted: 1 July 2014 / Published: 11 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implant)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is the most suitable biocompatible material for bone implant coatings; its brittleness, however, is a major obstacle, and the reason why research focuses on creating composites with biopolymers. Organosolv lignin (Lig) is used for the production of composite coatings, and these composites were examined in this study. Titanium substrate is a key biomedical material due to its well-known properties, but infections of the implantation site still impose a serious threat. One approach to prevent infection is to improve antimicrobial properties of the coating material. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag/HAP) and HAP coatings on titanium were obtained by an electrophoretic deposition method in order to control deposited coating mass and morphology by varying applied voltage and deposition time. The effect of lignin on microstructure, morphology and thermal behavior of biocomposite coatings was investigated. The results showed that higher lignin concentrations protect the HAP lattice during sintering, improving coating stability. The corrosion stability was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C. Newly formed plate-shaped carbonate-HAP was detected, indicating enhanced bioactive performance. The antimicrobial efficiency of Ag/HAP/Lig was confirmed by its higher reduction of bacteria Staphylococcus aureus TL (S. aureus TL) than of HAP/Lig coating. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that both coatings can be classified as non-toxic against healthy immunocompetent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).
Keywords: organosolv lignin; silver; hydroxyapatite; electrophoretic deposition; titanium; bioactivity; SBF; cytotoxicity; antimicrobial activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Erakovic, S.; Jankovic, A.; Tsui, G.C.P.; Tang, C.-Y.; Miskovic-Stankovic, V.; Stevanovic, T. Novel Bioactive Antimicrobial Lignin Containing Coatings on Titanium Obtained by Electrophoretic Deposition. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 12294-12322.

AMA Style

Erakovic S, Jankovic A, Tsui GCP, Tang C-Y, Miskovic-Stankovic V, Stevanovic T. Novel Bioactive Antimicrobial Lignin Containing Coatings on Titanium Obtained by Electrophoretic Deposition. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(7):12294-12322.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Erakovic, Sanja; Jankovic, Ana; Tsui, Gary C.P.; Tang, Chak-Yin; Miskovic-Stankovic, Vesna; Stevanovic, Tatjana. 2014. "Novel Bioactive Antimicrobial Lignin Containing Coatings on Titanium Obtained by Electrophoretic Deposition." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 7: 12294-12322.

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