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In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola against Some Phytopathogenic Fungi
Department of Science, University of Basilicata, Viale dell'Ateneo Lucano, 85100 Potenza, Italy
School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Viale dell'Ateneo Lucano, 85100 Potenza, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 November 2012; in revised form: 27 November 2012 / Accepted: 29 November 2012 / Published: 3 December 2012
Abstract: The trend to search novel microbial natural biocides has recently been increasing in order to avoid the environmental pollution from use of synthetic pesticides. Among these novel natural biocides are the bioactive secondary metabolites of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola (Bga). The aim of this study is to determine antifungal activity of Bga strains against some phytopathogenic fungi. The fungicidal tests were carried out using cultures and cell-free culture filtrates against Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium expansum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Phytophthora cactorum. Results demonstrated that all tested strains exert antifungal activity against all studied fungi by producing diffusible metabolites which are correlated with their ability to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. All strains significantly reduced the growth of studied fungi and the bacterial cells were more bioactive than bacterial filtrates. All tested Bulkholderia strains produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which inhibited the fungal growth and reduced the growth rate of Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. GC/MS analysis of VOCs emitted by strain Bga 11096 indicated the presence of a compound that was identified as 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohexene, a liquid hydrocarbon classified as cyclic terpene. This compound could be responsible for the antifungal activity, which is also in agreement with the work of other authors.
Keywords: Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola; antifungal activity; volatile organic compounds; extracellular enzymes; biological control
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Elshafie, H.S.; Camele, I.; Racioppi, R.; Scrano, L.; Iacobellis, N.S.; Bufo, S.A. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola against Some Phytopathogenic Fungi. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 16291-16302.
Elshafie HS, Camele I, Racioppi R, Scrano L, Iacobellis NS, Bufo SA. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola against Some Phytopathogenic Fungi. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(12):16291-16302.
Elshafie, Hazem S.; Camele, Ippolito; Racioppi, Rocco; Scrano, Laura; Iacobellis, Nicola S.; Bufo, Sabino A. 2012. "In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola against Some Phytopathogenic Fungi." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 12: 16291-16302.