Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(11), 15086-15106; doi:10.3390/ijms131115086
Review

Bacterial Bio-Resources for Remediation of Hexachlorocyclohexane

1 Pilot Plant of Industrial and Microbiological Processes (PROIMI), CONICET, Av. Belgrano y Pasaje Caseros, 4000 Tucumán, Argentina 2 Natural Sciences College and Miguel Lillo Institute, National University of Tucumán, Miguel Lillo 205, 4000 Tucumán, Argentina 3 North University of Saint Thomas Aquines, 9 de Julio 165, 4000 Tucumán, Argentina 4 Biochemistry, Chemistry and Pharmacy College, National University of Tucumán, Ayacucho 471, 4000 Tucumán, Argentina These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 September 2012; in revised form: 29 September 2012 / Accepted: 17 October 2012 / Published: 15 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biocides)
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Abstract: In the last few decades, highly toxic organic compounds like the organochlorine pesticide (OP) hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) have been released into the environment. All HCH isomers are acutely toxic to mammals. Although nowadays its use is restricted or completely banned in most countries, it continues posing serious environmental and health concerns. Since HCH toxicity is well known, it is imperative to develop methods to remove it from the environment. Bioremediation technologies, which use microorganisms and/or plants to degrade toxic contaminants, have become the focus of interest. Microorganisms play a significant role in the transformation and degradation of xenobiotic compounds. Many Gram-negative bacteria have been reported to have metabolic abilities to attack HCH. For instance, several Sphingomonas strains have been reported to degrade the pesticide. On the other hand, among Gram-positive microorganisms, actinobacteria have a great potential for biodegradation of organic and inorganic toxic compounds. This review compiles and updates the information available on bacterial removal of HCH, particularly by Streptomyces strains, a prolific genus of actinobacteria. A brief account on the persistence and deleterious effects of these pollutant chemical is also given.
Keywords: organochlorine pesticides; γ-hexachlorocyclohexane; bioremediation; Streptomyces genus

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MDPI and ACS Style

Alvarez, A.; Benimeli, C.S.; Saez, J.M.; Fuentes, M.S.; Cuozzo, S.A.; Polti, M.A.; Amoroso, M.J. Bacterial Bio-Resources for Remediation of Hexachlorocyclohexane. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 15086-15106.

AMA Style

Alvarez A, Benimeli CS, Saez JM, Fuentes MS, Cuozzo SA, Polti MA, Amoroso MJ. Bacterial Bio-Resources for Remediation of Hexachlorocyclohexane. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(11):15086-15106.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alvarez, Analía; Benimeli, Claudia S.; Saez, Juliana M.; Fuentes, María S.; Cuozzo, Sergio A.; Polti, Marta A.; Amoroso, María J. 2012. "Bacterial Bio-Resources for Remediation of Hexachlorocyclohexane." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 11: 15086-15106.

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