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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 457-469; doi:10.3390/ijms14010457
Article

The Effect of Long-Term Storage on the Physiochemical and Bactericidal Properties of Electrochemically Activated Solutions

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Received: 6 October 2012; in revised form: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 24 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biocides)
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Abstract: Electrochemically activated solutions (ECAS) are generated by electrolysis of NaCl solutions, and demonstrate broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and high environmental compatibility. The biocidal efficacy of ECAS at the point of production is widely reported in the literature, as are its credentials as a “green biocide.” Acidic ECAS are considered most effective as biocides at the point of production and ill suited for extended storage. Acidic ECAS samples were stored at 4 °C and 20 °C in glass and polystyrene containers for 398 days, and tested for free chlorine, pH, ORP and bactericidal activity throughout. ORP and free chlorine (mg/L) in stored ECAS declined over time, declining at the fastest rate when stored at 20 °C in polystyrene and at the slowest rate when stored at 4 °C in glass. Bactericidal efficacy was also affected by storage and ECAS failed to produce a 5 log10 reduction on five occasions when stored at 20 °C. pH remained stable throughout the storage period. This study represents the longest storage evaluation of the physiochemical parameters and bactericidal efficacy of acidic ECAS within the published literature and reveals that acidic ECAS retain useful bactericidal activity for in excess of 12 months, widening potential applications.
Keywords: ECAS; long term storage; physiochemical; bactericidal ECAS; long term storage; physiochemical; bactericidal
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Robinson, G.; Thorn, R.; Reynolds, D. The Effect of Long-Term Storage on the Physiochemical and Bactericidal Properties of Electrochemically Activated Solutions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 457-469.

AMA Style

Robinson G, Thorn R, Reynolds D. The Effect of Long-Term Storage on the Physiochemical and Bactericidal Properties of Electrochemically Activated Solutions. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(1):457-469.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Robinson, Gareth; Thorn, Robin; Reynolds, Darren. 2013. "The Effect of Long-Term Storage on the Physiochemical and Bactericidal Properties of Electrochemically Activated Solutions." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 1: 457-469.



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