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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 1197-1206; doi:10.3390/ijms14011197
Article

Coumarins from the Herb Cnidium monnieri and Chemically Modified Derivatives as Antifoulants against Balanus albicostatus and Bugula neritina Larvae

1,2
,
2
 and
1,2,*
1 State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China 2 Department of Marine Technology and Ocean Engineering, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2012 / Revised: 24 November 2012 / Accepted: 11 December 2012 / Published: 9 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biocides)
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Abstract

In the search for new environmental friendly antifouling (AF) agents, four coumarins were isolated from the herbal plant Cnidium monnieri, known as osthole (1), imperatorin (2), isopimpinellin (3) and auraptenol (4). Furthermore, five coumarin derivatives, namely 8-epoxypentylcoumarin (5), meranzin hydrate (6), 2'-deoxymetranzin hydrate (7), 8-methylbutenalcoumarin (8), and micromarin-F (9) were synthesized from osthole. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 7 showed high inhibitory activities against larval settlement of Balanus albicostatus with EC50 values of 4.64, 3.39, 3.38, 4.67 μg mL−1. Compound 8 could significantly inhibit larval settlement of Bugula neritina with an EC50 value of 3.87 μg mL−1. The impact of functional groups on anti-larval settlement activities suggested that the groups on C-5' and C-2'/C-3' of isoamylene chian could affect the AF activities.
Keywords: antifouling activity; Cnidium monnieri; coumarins; osthole; structure-activity relationship antifouling activity; Cnidium monnieri; coumarins; osthole; structure-activity relationship
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Wang, Z.-C.; Feng, D.-Q.; Ke, C.-H. Coumarins from the Herb Cnidium monnieri and Chemically Modified Derivatives as Antifoulants against Balanus albicostatus and Bugula neritina Larvae. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 1197-1206.

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