Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Fatal Attraction: How Bacterial Adhesins Affect Host Signaling and What We Can Learn from Them
Previous Article in Journal
Rescue Effects: Irradiated Cells Helped by Unirradiated Bystander Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cellular Disulfide Bond Formation in Bioactive Peptides and Proteins
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 2610-2625; doi:10.3390/ijms16022610

Insight into the Molecular and Functional Diversity of Cnidarian Neuropeptides

1
Suntory Foundation for Life Sciences, Bioorganic Research Institute, Osaka 618-8503, Japan
2
Research Center for Marine Biology, Asamushi, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aomori 039-3501, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Brijesh Tiwari
Received: 22 December 2014 / Revised: 6 January 2015 / Accepted: 15 January 2015 / Published: 23 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [952 KB, uploaded 23 January 2015]   |  

Abstract

Cnidarians are the most primitive animals to possess a nervous system. This phylum is composed of the classes Scyphozoa (jellyfish), Cubozoa (box jellyfish), and Hydrozoa (e.g., Hydra, Hydractinia), which make up the subphylum Medusozoa, as well as the class Anthozoa (sea anemones and corals). Neuropeptides have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in cnidarians. For example, from the cnidarian Hydra, a key model system for studying the peptides involved in developmental and physiological processes, we identified a wide variety of novel neuropeptides from Hydra magnipapillata (the Hydra Peptide Project). Most of these peptides act directly on muscle cells and induce contraction and relaxation. Some peptides are involved in cell differentiation and morphogenesis. In this review, we describe FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), GLWamide-family peptides, and the neuropeptide Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide. Several hundred FLPs have been isolated from invertebrate animals such as cnidarians. GLWamide-family peptides function as signaling molecules in muscle contraction, metamorphosis, and settlement in cnidarians. Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide enhances neuronal differentiation in Hydra. Recently, GLWamide-family peptides and Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide were shown to trigger oocyte maturation and subsequent spawning in the hydrozoan jellyfish Cytaeis uchidae. These findings suggest the importance of these neuropeptides in both developmental and physiological processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: cnidaria; hydra; jellyfish; coral; neuropeptide cnidaria; hydra; jellyfish; coral; neuropeptide
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Takahashi, T.; Takeda, N. Insight into the Molecular and Functional Diversity of Cnidarian Neuropeptides. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 2610-2625.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top