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Special Issue "Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Helena Solo-Gabriele

Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146, USA.
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 305-284-2908
Interests: Relationships between the environment and health; Contaminant fate and transport; microbial contaminants in the environment and their transmission pathways; oceans and human health; environmental and human health impacts of heavy metals including those from pressure treated wood; environmental hydrology
Guest Editor
Dr. Alesia Ferguson

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Risk assessment and dermal adherence and exposures; human activity patterns and exposures; outreach and education focused on exposure in and around the home; occupational exposure in the service industries

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Children are vulnerable to environmental contaminants, in many cases more so than adults. Their behaviors may increase their contaminant intake and the health outcomes associated with these intakes can be intensified at particular developmental stages. Children are also smaller in size than adults resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose.

Data specific for evaluating children’s exposure to environmental contaminants are limited. Data are limited on play behaviors that would increase exposures to environmental contaminants. Data are limited with respect to children’s susceptibility to environmental contaminants at various stages of growth.

This Special Issue aims to showcase and summarize new information about child behaviors that are useful for quantifying exposures of children to environmental contaminants.
We welcome papers that address behavioral patterns specific to children, children’s susceptibility to contaminants at various growth stages, quantify environmental exposures to contaminants, and document contaminant distributions in areas that present exposure risks to children. Innovative risk assessments focused on children’s susceptibility to environmental contaminants are also welcome.

Dr. Helena Solo-Gabriele
Dr. Alesia Ferguson
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.



Keywords

  • children’s health
  • play behavior
  • children microactivity studies
  • susceptibility during development
  • environmental exposures
  • environmental contaminants
  • contaminant distributions
  • contaminant intake
  • risk assessment

Published Papers (25 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: An Editorial Reflection of Articles in the IJERPH Special Issue Entitled, “Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants”
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1117; doi:10.3390/ijerph13111117
Received: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 9 November 2016
PDF Full-text (283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased
[...] Read more.
Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose. Because children undergo rapid transitions through particular developmental stages they are also especially vulnerable during certain growth-related time windows. A Special Issue was organized focused on the latest findings in the field of children’s environmental exposure for these reasons. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue and emphasizes their main findings in advancing the field. From the many articles submitted to this Special Issue from around the world, 23 were accepted and published. They focus on a variety of research areas such as children’s activity patterns, improved risk assessment methods to estimate exposures, and exposures in various contexts and to various contaminants. The future health of a nation relies on protecting the children from adverse exposures and understanding the etiology of childhood diseases. The field of children’s environmental exposures must consider improved and comprehensive research methods aimed at introducing mitigation strategies locally, nationally, and globally. We are happy to introduce a Special Issue focused on children’s environmental exposure and children’s health and hope that it contributes towards improved health of children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessCommunication Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Umbilical Cord Blood Serum of Newborns in Kingston, Jamaica
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1032; doi:10.3390/ijerph13101032
Received: 16 June 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income
[...] Read more.
To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income countries. Using data from 64 pregnant mothers who were enrolled in 2011, we aimed to assess the concentrations of the aforementioned toxins in umbilical cord blood serum of 67 Jamaican newborns. For 97 of the 100 PCB congeners and 16 of the 17 OC pesticides, all (100%) concentrations were below their respective limits of detection (LOD). Mean (standard deviation (SD)) lipid-adjusted concentrations in cord blood serum for congeners PCB-153, PCB-180, PCB-206 and total PCB were 14.25 (3.21), 7.16 (1.71), 7.30 (1.74) and 28.15 (6.03) ng/g-lipid, respectively. The means (SD) for the 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE)-hexane fraction and total-DDE were 61.61 (70.78) and 61.60 (70.76) ng/g-lipid, respectively. Compared to the U.S. and Canada, the concentrations of these toxins were lower in cord-blood serum of Jamaican newborns. We discuss that these differences could be partly due to differences in dietary patterns in these countries. Despite limitations in our dataset, our results provide information on the investigated toxins in cord blood serum that could serve as a reference for Jamaican newborns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Open AccessArticle The Exposure Uncertainty Analysis: The Association between Birth Weight and Trimester Specific Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM2.5 vs. PM10)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 906; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090906
Received: 22 January 2016 / Revised: 27 August 2016 / Accepted: 2 September 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Often spatiotemporal resolution/scale of environmental and health data do not align. Therefore, researchers compute exposure by interpolation or by aggregating data to coarse spatiotemporal scales. The latter is often preferred because of sparse geographic coverage of environmental monitoring, as interpolation method cannot reliably
[...] Read more.
Often spatiotemporal resolution/scale of environmental and health data do not align. Therefore, researchers compute exposure by interpolation or by aggregating data to coarse spatiotemporal scales. The latter is often preferred because of sparse geographic coverage of environmental monitoring, as interpolation method cannot reliably compute exposure using the small sample of sparse data points. This paper presents a methodology of diagnosing the levels of uncertainty in exposure at a given distance and time interval, and examines the effects of particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5 µm and ≤10 µm in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10, respectively) on birth weight (BW) and low birth weight (LBW), i.e., birth weight <2500 g in Chicago (IL, USA), accounting for exposure uncertainty. Two important findings emerge from this paper. First, uncertainty in PM exposure increases significantly with the increase in distance from the monitoring stations, e.g., 50.6% and 38.5% uncertainty in PM10 and PM2.5 exposure respectively for 0.058° (~6.4 km) distance from the monitoring stations. Second, BW was inversely associated with PM2.5 exposure, and PM2.5 exposure during the first trimester and entire gestation period showed a stronger association with BW than the exposure during the second and third trimesters. But PM10 did not show any significant association with BW and LBW. These findings suggest that distance and time intervals need to be chosen with care to compute exposure, and account for the uncertainty to reliably assess the adverse health risks of exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
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Open AccessArticle Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 853; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090853
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 27 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (704 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who
[...] Read more.
Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V) and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene) were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10−6 range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children’s beach play habits, which are necessary to more accurately assess exposure scenarios and health risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Low-Level Lead Toxicity on School Performance among Hispanic Subgroups in the Chicago Public Schools
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(8), 774; doi:10.3390/ijerph13080774
Received: 10 February 2016 / Revised: 20 June 2016 / Accepted: 26 July 2016 / Published: 1 August 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (481 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Environmental lead exposure detrimentally affects children’s educational performance, even at very low blood lead levels (BLLs). Among children in Chicago Public Schools (CPS), the severity of the effects of BLL on reading and math vary by racial subgroup (White vs. Hispanic
[...] Read more.
Background: Environmental lead exposure detrimentally affects children’s educational performance, even at very low blood lead levels (BLLs). Among children in Chicago Public Schools (CPS), the severity of the effects of BLL on reading and math vary by racial subgroup (White vs. Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic Black). We investigated the impact of BLL on standardized test performance by Hispanic subgroup (Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Other Hispanic). Methods: We examined 12,319 Hispanic children born in Chicago between 1994 and 1998 who were tested for BLL between birth and 2006 and enrolled in the 3rd grade at a CPS school between 2003 and 2006. We linked the Chicago birth registry, the Chicago Blood Lead Registry, and 3rd grade Illinois Standard Achievement Test (ISAT) scores to examine associations between BLL and school performance. Primary analyses were restricted to children with BLL below 10 µg/dL (0.483 µmol/L). Results: BLLs below 10 µg/dL (0.483 µmol/L) were inversely associated with reading and math scores in all Hispanic subgroups. Adjusted Relative Risks (RRadj) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for reading and math failure were 1.34 (95% CI = 1.25, 1.63) and 1.53 (95% CI = 1.32, 1.78), respectively, per each additional 5 µg/dL of lead exposure for Hispanic children; RRadj did not differ across subgroups. We estimate that 7.0% (95% CI = 1.8, 11.9) of reading and 13.6% (95% CI = 7.7, 19.2) of math failure among Hispanic children can be attributed to exposure to BLLs of 5–9 µg/dL (0.242 to 0.435 µmol/L) vs. 0–4 µg/dL (0–0.193 µmol/L). The RRadj of math failure for each 5 µg/dL (0.242 µmol/L) increase in BLL was notably (p = 0.074) stronger among black Puerto Rican children (RRadj = 5.14; 95% CI = 1.65–15.94) compared to white Puerto Rican children (RRadj = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.12–2.02). Conclusions: Early childhood lead exposure is associated with poorer achievement on standardized reading and math tests in the 3rd grade for Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Other Hispanic children enrolled in Chicago Public Schools. While we did not see interactions between BLL and ISAT performance by Hispanic subgroup, the stronger association between BLL and math failure for Black Puerto Rican children is intriguing and warrants further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
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Open AccessArticle Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Maternal Serum, Breast Milk, Umbilical Cord Serum, and House Dust in a South Korean Birth Panel of Mother-Neonate Pairs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(8), 767; doi:10.3390/ijerph13080767
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 21 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 July 2016 / Published: 28 July 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants. Although many reports have indicated an association between exposure to PBDEs and developmental neurotoxicity, the relative contributions of different sources of dust PBDE congeners to the levels in various tissues of mother–baby pairs
[...] Read more.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants. Although many reports have indicated an association between exposure to PBDEs and developmental neurotoxicity, the relative contributions of different sources of dust PBDE congeners to the levels in various tissues of mother–baby pairs is not well understood. The aims of this study were thus to measure the quantitative relationship between the level of PBDEs in house dust and tissues of mother-neonate pairs, and to investigate the chemical sources of the PBDEs. Forty-one mother-neonate pairs were recruited and provided samples of maternal serum (n = 29), umbilical cord serum (n = 25), breast milk (n = 50), and house dust (n = 41), where PBDEs were determined with high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. While deca- (e.g., BDE 209, detected 100%), nona- (BDE 206/207, 95.1%), octa- (BDE 183, 100%), penta- (BDE 99/153, 100%, 98%) and tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 100%) were detected abundantly in dust, penta- (BDE 99, 76%, 92%) and tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 84%, 98%) were detected abundantly in umbilical cord serum and breast milk, respectively; tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 86%) were detected more often relative to other congeners in maternal serum. Spearman’s pairwise comparison showed that the levels of BDE 47 (ρ = 0.52, p < 0.001) and −99 (ρ = 0.64, p < 0.01) in umbilical cord serum were associated with BDE 209 levels in dust; BDE 47 in maternal serum also showed correlation with BDE 99 in cord serum (ρ = 0.48, p < 0.01) but there was no significant correlation between maternal BDE 47 and dust BDE 209. On the other hand, a comparison of the distribution among congeners suggested probable associations of BDE 47 in maternal serum, breast milk, and umbilical cord serum with BDE 209 in dust; and of BDE 99 in maternal and umbilical cord serum, breast milk, and dust with BDE 209 in dust. Although further studies are needed, a radar chart-based distributional comparison among congeners supported associations between BDE 47 or −99 in human tissues and BDE 209 in dust. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
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Open AccessCommunication A Preliminary Assessment of the Role of Ambient Nitric Oxide Exposure in Hospitalization with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 578; doi:10.3390/ijerph13060578
Received: 23 February 2016 / Revised: 23 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 9 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Some in vitro studies have indicated a possible link between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and exposure to Nitric Oxide (NO). However, these studies used much higher NO concentrations than normally found in the ambient environment. This preliminary study explored whether an association
[...] Read more.
Some in vitro studies have indicated a possible link between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and exposure to Nitric Oxide (NO). However, these studies used much higher NO concentrations than normally found in the ambient environment. This preliminary study explored whether an association was present with short-term exposure to NO in the environment. RSV-related admission data between November 2011 and February 2012 were obtained from Sheffield Children’s Hospital. The dates of admission were linked to contemporaneous ambient NO derived from sentinel air monitors. The case-crossover design was used to study the relationship between daily RSV admissions and NO, controlling for temperature and relative humidity. We found little evidence of association between daily RSV admission rates and exposure to ambient NO at different lags or average exposure across several lags. The findings should, however, be viewed with caution due to the low number of events observed during the time frame. It is possible that the apparent lack of association may be accounted for by the timing of the seasonal RSV epidemic in relation to peaks in NO concentrations. A larger study incorporating a wider range of RSV and NO peaks would determine whether said peaks enhanced the number of RSV hospitalizations in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Open AccessArticle Hand- and Object-Mouthing of Rural Bangladeshi Children 3–18 Months Old
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 563; doi:10.3390/ijerph13060563
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 12 May 2016 / Accepted: 26 May 2016 / Published: 4 June 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1117 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Children are exposed to environmental contaminants by placing contaminated hands or objects in their mouths. We quantified hand- and object-mouthing frequencies of Bangladeshi children and determined if they differ from those of U.S. children to evaluate the appropriateness of applying U.S. exposure models
[...] Read more.
Children are exposed to environmental contaminants by placing contaminated hands or objects in their mouths. We quantified hand- and object-mouthing frequencies of Bangladeshi children and determined if they differ from those of U.S. children to evaluate the appropriateness of applying U.S. exposure models in other socio-cultural contexts. We conducted a five-hour structured observation of the mouthing behaviors of 148 rural Bangladeshi children aged 3–18 months. We modeled mouthing frequencies using 2-parameter Weibull distributions to compare the modeled medians with those of U.S. children. In Bangladesh the median frequency of hand-mouthing was 37.3 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 34.4 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 29.7 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. The median frequency of object-mouthing was 23.1 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 29.6 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 15.2 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. At all ages both hand- and object-mouthing frequencies were higher than those of U.S. children. Mouthing frequencies were not associated with child location (indoor/outdoor). Using hand- and object-mouthing exposure models from U.S. and other high-income countries might not accurately estimate children’s exposure to environmental contaminants via mouthing in low- and middle-income countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
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Open AccessArticle Association of Children’s Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 521; doi:10.3390/ijerph13050521
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 6 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 23 May 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16) levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels
[...] Read more.
Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16) levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels in children are associated with arsenic concentrations in environmental media collected from their homes. Yard soil, house dust, and tap water were taken from 34 homes. Urine and toenail samples were collected from 68 children. All concentrations were natural log-transformed prior to data analysis. There were associations between urinary CC16 and arsenic concentration in soil (b = −0.43, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.08), water (b = −0.22, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.03), house dust (b = −0.37, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.04), and dust loading (b = −0.21, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.04). In multiple analyses, only the concentration of arsenic in soil was associated with urinary CC16 levels (b = −0.42, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.14 (full model)) after accounting for other factors. The association between urinary CC16 and soil arsenic may suggest that localized arsenic exposure in the lungs could damage the airway epithelium and predispose children for diminished lung function. Future work to assess this possible mechanism should examine potential associations between airborne arsenic exposures, CC16 levels, lung function, and other possible confounders in children in arsenic-impacted communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Open AccessArticle A Toxicological Framework for the Prioritization of Children’s Safe Product Act Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 431; doi:10.3390/ijerph13040431
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 24 March 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 19 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (963 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In response to concerns over hazardous chemicals in children’s products, Washington State passed the Children’s Safe Product Act (CSPA). CSPA requires manufacturers to report the concentration of 66 chemicals in children’s products. We describe a framework for the toxicological prioritization of the ten
[...] Read more.
In response to concerns over hazardous chemicals in children’s products, Washington State passed the Children’s Safe Product Act (CSPA). CSPA requires manufacturers to report the concentration of 66 chemicals in children’s products. We describe a framework for the toxicological prioritization of the ten chemical groups most frequently reported under CSPA. The framework scores lifestage, exposure duration, primary, secondary and tertiary exposure routes, toxicokinetics and chemical properties to calculate an exposure score. Four toxicological endpoints were assessed based on curated national and international databases: reproductive and developmental toxicity, endocrine disruption, neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity. A total priority index was calculated from the product of the toxicity and exposure scores. The three highest priority chemicals were formaldehyde, dibutyl phthalate and styrene. Elements of the framework were compared to existing prioritization tools, such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) ExpoCast and Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi). The CSPA framework allowed us to examine toxicity and exposure pathways in a lifestage-specific manner, providing a relatively high throughput approach to prioritizing hazardous chemicals found in children’s products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Open AccessCommunication Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 388; doi:10.3390/ijerph13040388
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 19 March 2016 / Accepted: 25 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1016 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (
[...] Read more.
The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides) as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR) children, aged 5–12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass detector was used to measure the level of 3-PBA, the main pyrethroid metabolite in urine in a group of ASD patients, while optical emission spectrometry analysis was employed to estimate the level of metals and microelements in hair in a different group of ASD children. The presence of 3-PBA in urine seems to be independent of age in ASD children, while a positive correlation between 3-PBA and age was observed in the control group of the same age range. Urine concentration of 3-BPA in ASD children had higher values than in the control group, which were marginally significant (p = 0.054). Mg results were significantly decreased in ASD with respect to controls, while V, S, Zn, and Ca/Mg were marginally increased, without reaching statistical significance. Results of Principal Component (PC) analysis of metals and microelements in hair were not associated with either age or health status. In conclusion, 3-PBA in urine and Mg in hair were changed in ASD children relative to control ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Open AccessArticle Children’s Exposure to Radon in Nursery and Primary Schools
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 386; doi:10.3390/ijerph13040386
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1019 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The literature proves an evident association between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer, even at low doses. This study brings a new approach to the study of children’s exposure to radon by aiming to evaluate exposure to indoor radon concentrations in nursery and
[...] Read more.
The literature proves an evident association between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer, even at low doses. This study brings a new approach to the study of children’s exposure to radon by aiming to evaluate exposure to indoor radon concentrations in nursery and primary schools from two districts in Portugal (Porto and Bragança), considering different influencing factors (occupation patterns, classroom floor level, year of the buildings’ construction and soil composition of the building site), as well as the comparison with IAQ standard values for health protection. Fifteen nursery and primary schools in the Porto and Bragança districts were considered: five nursery schools for infants and twelve for pre-schoolers (seven different buildings), as well as eight primary schools. Radon measurements were performed continuously. The measured concentrations depended on the building occupation, classroom floor level and year of the buildings’ construction. Although they were in general within the Portuguese legislation for IAQ, exceedances to international standards were found. These results point out the need of assessing indoor radon concentrations not only in primary schools, but also in nursery schools, never performed in Portugal before this study. It is important to extend the study to other microenvironments like homes, and in time to estimate the annual effective dose and to assess lifetime health risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 376; doi:10.3390/ijerph13040376
Received: 4 February 2016 / Revised: 29 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 March 2016 / Published: 29 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to
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Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS) method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS). We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking) and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes). We found several significant (p < 0.01) relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite N-acetyl-S-(benzyl)-l-cysteine (BMA), and paint use was positively associated with the xylene metabolites 2-methylhippuric acid (2MHA) and 3-Methylhippuric acid & 4-methylhippuric acid (3MHA + 4MHA). A near-significant (p = 0.06) relationship was observed between acrylamide metabolites and observation of incense. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Open AccessArticle Risk Assessment of Arsenic in Rice Cereal and Other Dietary Sources for Infants and Toddlers in the U.S.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 361; doi:10.3390/ijerph13040361
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 3 March 2016 / Accepted: 16 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
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Abstract
Currently, there are no set standards or quantitative guidelines available in the U.S. for arsenic levels in rice cereal, one of the most common first solid foods for infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the detected levels of inorganic
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Currently, there are no set standards or quantitative guidelines available in the U.S. for arsenic levels in rice cereal, one of the most common first solid foods for infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the detected levels of inorganic arsenic (Asi) in rice cereal in the U.S. market are safe for consumption by infants and toddlers. A risk assessment was conducted based on literature reviews of the reported Asi in rice cereal from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) survey and the recommended daily intake of rice cereal by body weight, for infants and toddlers between four and 24 months old. As a part of risk management, a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for Asi in rice cereal was computed considering overall exposure sources including drinking water, infant formula, and other infant solid foods. Hazard quotients (HQs) for acute and chronic exposures were calculated based on the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry’s (ATSDR) Minimal Risk Level (MRL)acute (5.0 × 10−3 mg/kg/day) and MRLchronic (3.0 × 10−4 mg/kg/day). A cancer slope or potency factor of 1.5 mg/kg/day was used to predict an incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). Exposure assessment showed that the largest source of Asi for infants and toddlers between four and 24 months old was rice cereal (55%), followed by other infant solid food (19%), and drinking water (18%). Infant formula was the smallest source of Asi for babies (9%) at the 50th percentile based on Monte Carlo simulations. While HQacute were consistently below 1.0, HQchronic at the 50 and 75th percentiles exceeded 1.0 for both rice cereal and total sources. ILCR ranged from 10−6 (50th) to 10−5 (75th percentile). MCLs for Asi in rice cereal ranged from 0.0 (chronic) to 0.4 mg/kg (acute exposures). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Open AccessArticle Primary Paediatric Bronchial Airway Epithelial Cell in Vitro Responses to Environmental Exposures
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 359; doi:10.3390/ijerph13040359
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 24 March 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (776 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The bronchial airway epithelial cell (BAEC) is the site for initial encounters between inhaled environmental factors and the lower respiratory system. Our hypothesis was that release of pro inflammatory interleukins (IL)-6 and IL-8 from primary BAEC cultured from children will be increased after
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The bronchial airway epithelial cell (BAEC) is the site for initial encounters between inhaled environmental factors and the lower respiratory system. Our hypothesis was that release of pro inflammatory interleukins (IL)-6 and IL-8 from primary BAEC cultured from children will be increased after in vitro exposure to common environmental factors. Primary BAEC were obtained from children undergoing clinically indicated routine general anaesthetic procedures. Cells were exposed to three different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or house dust mite allergen (HDM) or particulates extracted from side stream cigarette smoke (SSCS). BAEC were obtained from 24 children (mean age 7.0 years) and exposed to stimuli. Compared with the negative control, there was an increase in IL-6 and IL-8 release after exposure to HDM (p ≤ 0.001 for both comparisons). There was reduced IL-6 after higher compared to lower SSCS exposure (p = 0.023). There was no change in BAEC release of IL-6 or IL-8 after LPS exposure. BAEC from children are able to recognise and respond in vitro with enhanced pro inflammatory mediator secretion to some inhaled exposures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Open AccessArticle Use of a Robotic Sampler (PIPER) for Evaluation of Particulate Matter Exposure and Eczema in Preschoolers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 242; doi:10.3390/ijerph13020242
Received: 9 September 2015 / Revised: 17 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
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Abstract
While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority
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While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority of their time indoors, relatively little research has focused on correlated non-respiratory conditions. This study examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM) exposures in preschool age children and major correlates of asthma, such as wheeze and eczema. Air sampling was carried out using a robotic (PIPER) child-sampling surrogate. This study enrolled 128 participants, 57 male and 71 female children. Ages ranged from 3 to 58 months with the mean age of 29.3 months. A comparison of subjects with and without eczema showed a difference in the natural log (ln) of PM collected from the PIPER air sampling (p = 0.049). PIPER’s sampling observed an association between the ln PM concentrations and eczema, but not an association with wheezing history in pre-school children. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the role of the microenvironment in mediating atopic dermatitis, which is one of the predictors of persistent asthma. Our findings also support the use of PIPER in its ability to model and sample the microenvironment of young children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
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Open AccessCommunication Pathogens in Ornamental Waters: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 216; doi:10.3390/ijerph13020216
Received: 19 November 2015 / Revised: 12 January 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
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Abstract
In parks, ornamental waters of easy access and populated with animals are quite attractive to children and yet might hide threats to human health. The present work focuses on the microbiota of the ornamental waters of a Lisboa park, characterized during 2015. The
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In parks, ornamental waters of easy access and populated with animals are quite attractive to children and yet might hide threats to human health. The present work focuses on the microbiota of the ornamental waters of a Lisboa park, characterized during 2015. The results show a dynamic microbiota integrating human pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Aeromonas spp. and Enterobacter spp., and also antibiotic resistant bacteria. K. pneumoniae and Aeromonas spp. were present as planktonic and biofilm organized bacteria. In vitro K. pneumoniae and Aeromonas spp. showed an enhanced ability to assemble biofilm at 25 °C than at 37 °C. Bacteria recovered from biofilm samples showed an increased antibiotic resistance compared to the respective planktonic counterparts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Open AccessArticle Ethnic Kawasaki Disease Risk Associated with Blood Mercury and Cadmium in U.S. Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 101; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010101
Received: 23 November 2015 / Revised: 29 December 2015 / Accepted: 30 December 2015 / Published: 5 January 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Kawasaki disease (KD) primarily affects children <5 years of age (75%–80%) and is currently the leading cause of acquired heart disease in developed nations. Even when residing in the West, East Asian children are 10 to 20 times more likely to develop KD.
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Kawasaki disease (KD) primarily affects children <5 years of age (75%–80%) and is currently the leading cause of acquired heart disease in developed nations. Even when residing in the West, East Asian children are 10 to 20 times more likely to develop KD. We hypothesized cultural variations influencing pediatric mercury (Hg) exposure from seafood consumption may mediate ethnic KD risk among children in the United States. Hospitalization rates of KD in US children aged 0–4 years (n = 10,880) and blood Hg levels in US children aged 1–5 years (n = 713) were determined using separate US federal datasets. Our cohort primarily presented with blood Hg levels <0.1 micrograms (µg) per kg bodyweight (96.5%) that are considered normal and subtoxic. Increased ethnic KD risk was significantly associated with both increasing levels and detection rates of blood Hg or cadmium (Cd) in a linear dose-responsive manner between ethnic African, Asian, Caucasian, and Hispanic children in the US (p ≤ 0.05). Increasing low-dose exposure to Hg or Cd may induce KD or contribute to its later development in susceptible children. However, our preliminary results require further replication in other ethnic populations, in addition to more in-depth examination of metal exposure and toxicokinetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Open AccessArticle Distribution and Predictors of Pesticides in the Umbilical Cord Blood of Chinese Newborns
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 94; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010094
Received: 20 October 2015 / Revised: 8 December 2015 / Accepted: 28 December 2015 / Published: 30 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Rates of pesticide use in Chinese agriculture are five times greater than the global average, leading to high exposure via the diet. Many are neurotoxic, making prenatal pesticide exposure a concern. Previous studies of prenatal exposure in China focused almost entirely on organochlorines.
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Rates of pesticide use in Chinese agriculture are five times greater than the global average, leading to high exposure via the diet. Many are neurotoxic, making prenatal pesticide exposure a concern. Previous studies of prenatal exposure in China focused almost entirely on organochlorines. Here the study goals were to characterize the exposure of Chinese newborns to all classes of pesticides and identify predictors of those exposures. Eighty-four pesticides and 12 metabolites were measured in the umbilical cord plasma of 336 infants. Composite variables were created for totals detected overall and by class. Individual pesticides were analyzed as dichotomous or continuous, based on detection rates. Relationships between demographic characteristics and pesticides were evaluated using generalized linear regression. Seventy-five pesticides were detected. The mean number of detects per sample was 15.3. Increased pesticide detects were found in the cord blood of infants born in the summer (β = 2.2, p = 0.01), particularly in July (β = 4.0, p = 0.03). Similar trends were observed for individual insecticide classes. Thus, a summer birth was the strongest predictor of pesticide evidence in cord blood. Associations were more striking for overall pesticide exposure than for individual pesticides, highlighting the importance of considering exposure to mixtures of pesticides, rather than individual agents or classes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Open AccessArticle The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 93; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010093
Received: 5 October 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 30 December 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1015 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma.
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The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE) study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945–1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8%) than subjects growing up in inner cities (11%) (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57–0.91), and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02). An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Open AccessArticle Residential Radon Exposure and Incidence of Childhood Lymphoma in Texas, 1995–2011
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 12110-12126; doi:10.3390/ijerph121012110
Received: 4 August 2015 / Revised: 11 September 2015 / Accepted: 21 September 2015 / Published: 25 September 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is warranted interest in assessing the association between residential radon exposure and the risk of childhood cancer. We sought to evaluate the association between residential radon exposure and the incidence of childhood lymphoma in Texas. The Texas Cancer Registry (n =
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There is warranted interest in assessing the association between residential radon exposure and the risk of childhood cancer. We sought to evaluate the association between residential radon exposure and the incidence of childhood lymphoma in Texas. The Texas Cancer Registry (n = 2147) provided case information for the period 1995–2011. Denominator data were obtained from the United States Census. Regional arithmetic mean radon concentrations were obtained from the Texas Indoor Radon Survey and linked to residence at diagnosis. Exposure was assessed categorically: ≤25th percentile (reference), >25th to ≤50th percentile, >50th to ≤75th percentile, and >75th percentile. Negative binomial regression generated adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We evaluated lymphoma overall and by subtype: Hodgkin (HL; n = 1248), Non-Hodgkin excluding Burkitt (non-BL NHL; n = 658), Burkitt (BL; n = 241), and Diffuse Large B-cell (DLBCL; n = 315). There was no evidence that residential radon exposure was positively associated with lymphoma overall, HL, or BL. Areas with radon concentrations >75th percentile had a marginal increase in DLBCL incidence (aIRR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.03–2.91). In one of the largest studies of residential radon exposure and the incidence of childhood lymphoma, we found little evidence to suggest a positive or negative association; an observation consistent with previous studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)

Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview A Review of the Field on Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: A Risk Assessment Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 265; doi:10.3390/ijerph14030265
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 25 February 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
PDF Full-text (1199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Children must be recognized as a sensitive population based on having biological systems and organs in various stages of development. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of environmental contaminants within a child’s body are considered less advanced than those
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Background: Children must be recognized as a sensitive population based on having biological systems and organs in various stages of development. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of environmental contaminants within a child’s body are considered less advanced than those of adults, making them more susceptible to disease outcomes following even small doses. Children’s unique activities of crawling and practicing increased hand-to-mouth ingestion also make them vulnerable to greater exposures by certain contaminants within specific environments. Approach: There is a need to review the field of children’s environmental exposures in order to understand trends and identify gaps in research, which may lead to better protection of this vulnerable and sensitive population. Therefore, explored here are previously published contemporary works in the broad area of children’s environmental exposures and potential impact on health from around the world. A discussion of children’s exposure to environmental contaminants is best organized under the last four steps of a risk assessment approach: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment (including children’s activity patterns) and risk characterization. We first consider the many exposure hazards that exist in the indoor and outdoor environments, and emerging contaminants of concern that may help guide the risk assessment process in identifying focus areas for children. A section on special diseases of concern is also included. Conclusions: The field of children’s exposures to environmental contaminants is broad. Although there are some well-studied areas offering much insight into children exposures, research is still needed to further our understanding of exposures to newer compounds, growing disease trends and the role of gene-environment interactions that modify adverse health outcomes. It is clear that behaviors of adults and children play a role in reducing or increasing a child’s exposure, where strategies to better communicate and implement risk modifying behaviors are needed, and can be more effective than implementing   changes in the physical environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
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Open AccessReview Pediatric Exposures to Ionizing Radiation: Carcinogenic Considerations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1057; doi:10.3390/ijerph13111057
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 26 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Children are at a greater risk than adults of developing cancer after being exposed to ionizing radiation. Because of their developing bodies and long life expectancy post-exposure, children require specific attention in the aftermath of nuclear accidents and when radiation is used for
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Children are at a greater risk than adults of developing cancer after being exposed to ionizing radiation. Because of their developing bodies and long life expectancy post-exposure, children require specific attention in the aftermath of nuclear accidents and when radiation is used for diagnosis or treatment purposes. In this review, we discuss the carcinogenic potential of pediatric exposures to ionizing radiation from accidental, diagnostic, and therapeutic modalities. Particular emphasis is given to leukemia and thyroid cancers as consequences of accidental exposures. We further discuss the evidence of cancers that arise as a result of radiotherapy and conclude the review with a summary on the available literature on the links between computer tomography (CT) and carcinogenesis. Appropriate actions taken to mitigate or minimize the negative health effects of pediatric exposures to ionizing radiation and future considerations are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Open AccessReview Approaches to Children’s Exposure Assessment: Case Study with Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 670; doi:10.3390/ijerph13070670
Received: 21 April 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 20 June 2016 / Published: 1 July 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Children’s exposure assessment is a key input into epidemiology studies, risk assessment and source apportionment. The goals of this article are to describe a methodology for children’s exposure assessment that can be used for these purposes and to apply the methodology to source
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Children’s exposure assessment is a key input into epidemiology studies, risk assessment and source apportionment. The goals of this article are to describe a methodology for children’s exposure assessment that can be used for these purposes and to apply the methodology to source apportionment for the case study chemical, diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP). A key feature is the comparison of total (aggregate) exposure calculated via a pathways approach to that derived from a biomonitoring approach. The 4-step methodology and its results for DEHP are: (1) Prioritization of life stages and exposure pathways, with pregnancy, breast-fed infants, and toddlers the focus of the case study and pathways selected that are relevant to these groups; (2) Estimation of pathway-specific exposures by life stage wherein diet was found to be the largest contributor for pregnant women, breast milk and mouthing behavior for the nursing infant and diet, house dust, and mouthing for toddlers; (3) Comparison of aggregate exposure by pathways vs biomonitoring-based approaches wherein good concordance was found for toddlers and pregnant women providing confidence in the exposure assessment; (4) Source apportionment in which DEHP presence in foods, children’s products, consumer products and the built environment are discussed with respect to early life mouthing, house dust and dietary exposure. A potential fifth step of the method involves the calculation of exposure doses for risk assessment which is described but outside the scope for the current case study. In summary, the methodology has been used to synthesize the available information to identify key sources of early life exposure to DEHP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)

Other

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Open AccessCase Report Home Use of a Pyrethroid-Containing Pesticide and Facial Paresthesia in a Toddler: A Case Report
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(8), 829; doi:10.3390/ijerph13080829
Received: 1 July 2016 / Revised: 7 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 17 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Paresthesias have previously been reported among adults in occupational and non-occupational settings after dermal contact with pyrethroid insecticides. In this report, we describe a preverbal 13-month-old who presented to his primary care pediatrician with approximately 1 week of odd facial movements consistent with
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Paresthesias have previously been reported among adults in occupational and non-occupational settings after dermal contact with pyrethroid insecticides. In this report, we describe a preverbal 13-month-old who presented to his primary care pediatrician with approximately 1 week of odd facial movements consistent with facial paresthesias. The symptoms coincided with a period of repeat indoor spraying at his home with a commercially available insecticide containing two active ingredients in the pyrethroid class. Consultation by the Northwest Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit and follow-up by the Washington State Department of Health included urinary pyrethroid metabolite measurements during and after the symptomatic period, counseling on home clean up and use of safer pest control methods. The child’s symptoms resolved soon after home cleanup. A diagnosis of pesticide-related illness due to pyrethroid exposure was made based on the opportunity for significant exposure (multiple applications in areas where the child spent time), supportive biomonitoring data, and the consistency and temporality of symptom findings (paresthesias). This case underscores the vulnerability of children to uptake pesticides, the role of the primary care provider in ascertaining an exposure history to recognize symptomatic illness, and the need for collaborative medical and public health efforts to reduce significant exposures in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
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