Next Article in Journal
Comprehensive Comparison between Empty Nest and Non-Empty Nest Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study among Rural Populations in Northeast China
Next Article in Special Issue
The Exposure Uncertainty Analysis: The Association between Birth Weight and Trimester Specific Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM2.5 vs. PM10)
Previous Article in Journal
The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory: Measurement Invariance and Psychometric Properties among Portuguese Youths
Previous Article in Special Issue
Home Use of a Pyrethroid-Containing Pesticide and Facial Paresthesia in a Toddler: A Case Report
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 853; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090853

Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals

1
Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146, USA
2
Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
3
Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
4
Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
5
School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, El Paso, TX 79902, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 27 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [704 KB, uploaded 27 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V) and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene) were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10−6 range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children’s beach play habits, which are necessary to more accurately assess exposure scenarios and health risks. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; non-cancer; arsenic; oil spill; risk assessment cancer; non-cancer; arsenic; oil spill; risk assessment
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Black, J.C.; Welday, J.N.; Buckley, B.; Ferguson, A.; Gurian, P.L.; Mena, K.D.; Yang, I.; McCandlish, E.; Solo-Gabriele, H.M. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 853.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top