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Open AccessCommunication
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 388; doi:10.3390/ijerph13040388

Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation

1
REQUIMTE/LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
2
School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
3
Computer Science Division, School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
4
DIMES, School of Medicine, Università di Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy and Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation ONLUS, 20162 Milan, Italy
5
IRCCS Institute of Neurological Sciences-Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
6
Laboratorio NovEra srl, 62012 Civitanova Marche, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this study.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Helena Solo-Gabriele and Alesia Ferguson
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 19 March 2016 / Accepted: 25 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
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Abstract

The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides) as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR) children, aged 5–12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass detector was used to measure the level of 3-PBA, the main pyrethroid metabolite in urine in a group of ASD patients, while optical emission spectrometry analysis was employed to estimate the level of metals and microelements in hair in a different group of ASD children. The presence of 3-PBA in urine seems to be independent of age in ASD children, while a positive correlation between 3-PBA and age was observed in the control group of the same age range. Urine concentration of 3-BPA in ASD children had higher values than in the control group, which were marginally significant (p = 0.054). Mg results were significantly decreased in ASD with respect to controls, while V, S, Zn, and Ca/Mg were marginally increased, without reaching statistical significance. Results of Principal Component (PC) analysis of metals and microelements in hair were not associated with either age or health status. In conclusion, 3-PBA in urine and Mg in hair were changed in ASD children relative to control ones. View Full-Text
Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder; urine metabolites; 3-phenoxybenzoic acid; hair metals and microelements Autism Spectrum Disorder; urine metabolites; 3-phenoxybenzoic acid; hair metals and microelements
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MDPI and ACS Style

Domingues, V.F.; Nasuti, C.; Piangerelli, M.; Correia-Sá, L.; Ghezzo, A.; Marini, M.; Abruzzo, P.M.; Visconti, P.; Giustozzi, M.; Rossi, G.; Gabbianelli, R. Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 388.

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