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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 578; doi:10.3390/ijerph13060578

A Preliminary Assessment of the Role of Ambient Nitric Oxide Exposure in Hospitalization with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis

1
Institute of Applied Health Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
2
School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, WA 6009, Australia
3
Sheffield Children’s NHS Foundation Trust, Respiratory Medicine, Sheffield S10 2TH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Helena Solo-Gabriele and Alesia Ferguson
Received: 23 February 2016 / Revised: 23 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 9 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
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Abstract

Some in vitro studies have indicated a possible link between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and exposure to Nitric Oxide (NO). However, these studies used much higher NO concentrations than normally found in the ambient environment. This preliminary study explored whether an association was present with short-term exposure to NO in the environment. RSV-related admission data between November 2011 and February 2012 were obtained from Sheffield Children’s Hospital. The dates of admission were linked to contemporaneous ambient NO derived from sentinel air monitors. The case-crossover design was used to study the relationship between daily RSV admissions and NO, controlling for temperature and relative humidity. We found little evidence of association between daily RSV admission rates and exposure to ambient NO at different lags or average exposure across several lags. The findings should, however, be viewed with caution due to the low number of events observed during the time frame. It is possible that the apparent lack of association may be accounted for by the timing of the seasonal RSV epidemic in relation to peaks in NO concentrations. A larger study incorporating a wider range of RSV and NO peaks would determine whether said peaks enhanced the number of RSV hospitalizations in children. View Full-Text
Keywords: respiratory syncytial virus; bronchiolitis; air pollution; nitrogen oxide respiratory syncytial virus; bronchiolitis; air pollution; nitrogen oxide
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mohammed, N.I.; Everard, M.L.; Ayres, J.G.; Barker, N.J.; Litchfield, I.J. A Preliminary Assessment of the Role of Ambient Nitric Oxide Exposure in Hospitalization with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 578.

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