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Comment published on 4 October 2016, see Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 977.

Reply published on 4 October 2016, see Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 978.

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 521; doi:10.3390/ijerph13050521

Association of Children’s Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media

1
Asthma and Airways Disease Research Center, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
2
Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, 1295 N. Martin Ave., Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
3
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, 1133 E. James E. Rogers Way, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
4
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 210207, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
5
Institute of Occupational Medicine, Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP, UK
6
Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 245044, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Helena Solo-Gabriele and Alesia Ferguson
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 6 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 23 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1489 KB, uploaded 23 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16) levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels in children are associated with arsenic concentrations in environmental media collected from their homes. Yard soil, house dust, and tap water were taken from 34 homes. Urine and toenail samples were collected from 68 children. All concentrations were natural log-transformed prior to data analysis. There were associations between urinary CC16 and arsenic concentration in soil (b = −0.43, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.08), water (b = −0.22, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.03), house dust (b = −0.37, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.04), and dust loading (b = −0.21, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.04). In multiple analyses, only the concentration of arsenic in soil was associated with urinary CC16 levels (b = −0.42, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.14 (full model)) after accounting for other factors. The association between urinary CC16 and soil arsenic may suggest that localized arsenic exposure in the lungs could damage the airway epithelium and predispose children for diminished lung function. Future work to assess this possible mechanism should examine potential associations between airborne arsenic exposures, CC16 levels, lung function, and other possible confounders in children in arsenic-impacted communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: children; arsenic; respiratory health; CC16; uteroglobulin; multi-route exposure assessment; soil; drinking water children; arsenic; respiratory health; CC16; uteroglobulin; multi-route exposure assessment; soil; drinking water
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Beamer, P.I.; Klimecki, W.T.; Loh, M.; Van Horne, Y.O.; Sugeng, A.J.; Lothrop, N.; Billheimer, D.; Guerra, S.; Lantz, R.C.; Canales, R.A.; Martinez, F.D. Association of Children’s Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 521.

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