Special Issue "Grain-based Foods: Processing, Properties, and Heath Attributes"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2018)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Emanuele Zannini

Cereal and Beverage Science Research Group, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, College Road, Cork, Ireland
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Interests: microbiology, food engineering, and food nutrition; formulation of food and beverage products able to address consumers’ preference and dietary needs, as well as complement the medical therapy requirements
Co-Guest Editor
Dr. Raffaella di Cagno

Department of Soil, Plant and Food Science, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Via G. Amendola 165/a, 70126 Bari, Italy
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Interests: molecular microbiology and biotechnology of sourdough, cheese and vegetable/fruit lactic acid bacteria; proteomics of lactic acid bacteria in response to environmental stresses and quorum sensing; synthesis of biogenic compounds by lactic acid bacteria; transcriptomics and phenomics of lactic acid bacteria in response to plant niche environments

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The journal Foods (ISSN 2304-8158) is currently running a Special Issue entitled "Grain-Based Foods: Processing, Properties, and Heath Attributes", for which we are serving as Guest Editors. The Special Issue aims to provides a complete exploration of the scientific principles related to processing, fermentation/malting, and nutrition of cereal grains. It also describes their physical and chemical characteristics and explains how these properties relate to health and nutritional value of the final grain-based products. Indeed, while grains remain the world’s largest food yield—with more than 2.4 billion metric tons produced annually—consumer demands are on the rise for grain products sustainable from an environmental, social and economic viewpoint, in order to meet the growing demand for healthy and nutritious foods.

Given your precious and valuable knowledge in the area of cereal science, we would like to invite you to contribute with your expertise to this Special Issue. It would be an honor to receive a contribution from you.

Dr. Emanuele Zannini
Dr. Raffaella di Cagno
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Grains/cereals techno-functional properties
  • Lactic acid bacteria/yeast fermentation
  • Cereal chemistry
  • Health-promoting grain products
  • Sustainable production

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Composition, Protein Profile and Rheological Properties of Pseudocereal-Based Protein-Rich Ingredients
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
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Abstract
The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutrient composition, protein profile, morphology, and pasting properties of protein-rich pseudocereal ingredients (quinoa, amaranth, and buckwheat) and compare them to the more common rice and maize flours. Literature concerning protein-rich pseudocereal ingredients is very
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The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutrient composition, protein profile, morphology, and pasting properties of protein-rich pseudocereal ingredients (quinoa, amaranth, and buckwheat) and compare them to the more common rice and maize flours. Literature concerning protein-rich pseudocereal ingredients is very limited, mainly to protein profiling. The concentrations of macronutrients (i.e., ash, fat, and protein, as well as soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre) were significantly higher for the protein-rich variants of pseudocereal-based flours than their regular protein content variants and the rice and maize flours. On profiling the protein component using sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), all samples showed common bands at ~50 kDa and low molecular weight bands corresponding to the globulin fraction (~50 kDa) and albumin fraction (~10 kDa), respectively; except rice, in which the main protein was glutelin. The morphology of the starch granules was studied using scanning electron microscopy with quinoa and amaranth showing the smallest sized granules, while buckwheat, rice, and maize had the largest starch granules. The pasting properties of the ingredients were generally similar, except for buckwheat and amaranth, which showed the highest and lowest final viscosity, respectively. The results obtained in this study can be used to better understand the functionality and food applications of protein-rich pseudocereal ingredients. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Can Zymomonas mobilis Substitute Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Cereal Dough Leavening?
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
Baker’s yeast intolerance is rising among Western populations, where Saccharomyces cerevisiae is spread in fermented food and food components. Zymomonas mobilis is a bacterium commonly used in tropical areas to produce alcoholic beverages, and it has only rarely been considered for dough leavening
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Baker’s yeast intolerance is rising among Western populations, where Saccharomyces cerevisiae is spread in fermented food and food components. Zymomonas mobilis is a bacterium commonly used in tropical areas to produce alcoholic beverages, and it has only rarely been considered for dough leavening probably because it only ferments glucose, fructose and sucrose, which are scarcely present in flour. However, through alcoholic fermentation, similarly to S. cerevisiae, it provides an equimolar mixture of ethanol and CO2 that can rise a dough. Here, we propose Z. mobilis as a new leavening agent, as an alternative to S. cerevisiae, overcoming its technological limit with different strategies: (1) adding glucose to the dough formulation; and (2) exploiting the maltose hydrolytic activity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis associated with Z. mobilis. CO2 production, dough volume increase, pH value, microbial counts, sugars consumption and ethanol production were monitored. Results suggest that glucose addition to the dough lets Z. mobilis efficiently leaven a dough, while glucose released by L. sanfranciscensis is not so well fermented by Z. mobilis, probably due to the strong acidification. Nevertheless, the use of Z. mobilis as a leavening agent could contribute to increasing the variety of baked goods alternative to those leavened by S. cerevisiae. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Production of Barbari Bread (Traditional Iranian Bread) Using Different Levels of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and Sodium Stearoyl Lactate (SSL)
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
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Abstract
Bread is one of the oldest foods known throughout history and even though it is one of the principal types of staple around the world, it usually lacks enough nutrients, including protein and fiber. As such, fortification is one of the best solutions
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Bread is one of the oldest foods known throughout history and even though it is one of the principal types of staple around the world, it usually lacks enough nutrients, including protein and fiber. As such, fortification is one of the best solutions to overcome this problem. Thus, the objective this study was to examine the effect of three levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) (0%, 10% and 20%) in conjunction with three levels of SSL (sodium stearoyl lactate) (0%, 2% and 5%) on physical and chemical properties of Barbari bread (traditional Iranian bread). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate DDGS and Sodium Stearoyl-2-Lactilate (SSL), as sources of fortification in Barbari bread. The results showed that incorporation of 20% of DDGS and 0% SSL caused a significant increase in the amount of fiber and protein. As for the physical attributes, using higher amount of DDGS caused a darker color, and as for the texture parameters, the highest firmness was measured when 10% DDGS and 5% of SSL were used. Different Mixolab and Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) parameters also were measured with varying results. The findings of this study show that DDGS can be a valuable source of fiber and protein, which can be used as a cost effective source to fortify cereal-based products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lutein Esterification in Wheat Flour Increases the Carotenoid Retention and Is Induced by Storage Temperatures
Foods 2017, 6(12), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6120111
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of long-term storage on the carotenoid pigments present in whole-grain flours prepared from durum wheat and tritordeum. As expected, higher storage temperatures showed a catabolic effect, which was very marked for free carotenoid pigments. Surprisingly,
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The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of long-term storage on the carotenoid pigments present in whole-grain flours prepared from durum wheat and tritordeum. As expected, higher storage temperatures showed a catabolic effect, which was very marked for free carotenoid pigments. Surprisingly, for both cereal genotypes, the thermal conditions favoured the synthesis of lutein esters, leading to an enhanced stability, slower degradation, and, subsequently, a greater carotenoid retention. The putative involvement of lipase enzymes in lutein esterification in flours is discussed, particularly regarding the preferential esterification of the hydroxyl group with linoleic acid at the 3′ in the ε-ring of the lutein molecule. The negative effects of processing on carotenoid retention were less pronounced in durum wheat flours, which could be due to an increased esterifying activity (the de novo formation of diesterified xanthophylls was observed). Moreover, clear differences were observed for tritordeum depending on whether the lutein was in a free or esterified state. For instance, lutein-3′-O-monolinoleate showed a three-fold lower degradation rate than free lutein at 37 °C. In view of our results, we advise that the biofortification research aimed at increasing the carotenoid contents in cereals should be based on the selection of varieties with an enhanced content of esterified xanthophylls. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Content of Tocols in South African Wheat; Impact on Nutritional Benefits
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
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Abstract
Wheat is a major component within human consumption, and due to the large intake of wheat, it has an impact on human nutritional health. This study aimed at an increased understanding of how the content and composition of tocols may be governed for
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Wheat is a major component within human consumption, and due to the large intake of wheat, it has an impact on human nutritional health. This study aimed at an increased understanding of how the content and composition of tocols may be governed for increased nutritional benefit of wheat consumption. Therefore, ten South African wheat cultivars from three locations were fractionated into white and whole flour, the content and concentration of tocols were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and vitamin E activity was determined. The content and composition of tocols and vitamin E activity differed with fractionation, genotype, environment, and their interaction. The highest tocol content (59.8 mg kg−1) was obtained in whole flour for the cultivar Elands grown in Ladybrand, while whole Caledon flour from Clarence resulted in the highest vitamin E activity (16.3 mg kg−1). The lowest vitamin E activity (1.9 mg kg−1) was found in the cultivar C1PAN3118 from Ladybrand. High values of tocotrienols were obtained in whole flour of the cultivars Caledon (30.5 mg kg−1 in Clarens), Elands (35.5 mg kg−1 in Ladybrand), and Limpopo (33.7 mg kg−1 in Bultfontein). The highest tocotrienol to tocopherol ratio was found in white flour (2.83) due to higher reduction of tocotrienols than of tocopherols at fractionation. The quantity and composition of tocols can be governed in wheat flour, primarily by the selection of fractionation method at flour production, but also complemented by selection of genetic material and the growing environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sodium Chloride and Its Influence on the Aroma Profile of Yeasted Bread
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
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Abstract
The impact of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the yeast activity in bread dough and its influence on the aroma profile of the baked bread was investigated. Key aroma compounds in the bread samples were analysed by two-dimensional high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in
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The impact of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the yeast activity in bread dough and its influence on the aroma profile of the baked bread was investigated. Key aroma compounds in the bread samples were analysed by two-dimensional high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in combination with solvent-assisted flavour evaporation distillation. High-sensitivity proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry was used to detect and quantify 2-phenylethanol in the headspace of the bread dough during fermentation. The analyses revealed significant (p < 0.05) changes in the aroma compounds 2-phenylethanol, (E)-2-nonenal, and 2,4-(E,E)-decadienal. Descriptive sensory analysis and discriminating triangle tests revealed that significant differences were only determinable in samples with different yeast levels but not samples with different NaCl concentrations. This indicates that a reduction in NaCl does not significantly influence the aroma profile of yeasted bread at levels above the odour thresholds of the relevant compounds, thus consumers in general cannot detect an altered odour profile of low‑salt bread crumb. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Astaxanthin-Rich Microalgae “Haematococcus pluvialis” and Wholemeal Flours Incorporation in Improving the Physical and Functional Properties of Cookies
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract
Marine-based food supplements can improve human nutrition. In an effort to modulate glycaemic response and enhance nutritional aspects, marine-derived algal food rich in astaxanthin was used in the formulation of a model food (wholemeal cookie). Astaxanthin substitution of cookies made from three flours
[...] Read more.
Marine-based food supplements can improve human nutrition. In an effort to modulate glycaemic response and enhance nutritional aspects, marine-derived algal food rich in astaxanthin was used in the formulation of a model food (wholemeal cookie). Astaxanthin substitution of cookies made from three flours (wheat, barley and oat) demonstrated a significant reduction in the rate of glucose released during in vitro digestion together with an increase in the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity of the food. The significantly (p < 0.005) lower free glucose release was observed from cookies with 15% astaxanthin, followed by 10% and then 5% astaxanthin in comparison with control cookies of each flour. Total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) value also notably increased with increase in astaxanthin content. The results evidence the potential use of microalgae to enhance the bioactive compounds and lower the glycaemic response of wholemeal flour cookie. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Use of Sourdough in Low FODMAP Baking
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
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Abstract
A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet allows most irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients to manage their gastrointestinal symptoms by avoiding FODMAP-containing foods, such as onions, pulses, and products made from wheat or rye. The downside of a low FODMAP
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A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet allows most irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients to manage their gastrointestinal symptoms by avoiding FODMAP-containing foods, such as onions, pulses, and products made from wheat or rye. The downside of a low FODMAP diet is the reduced intake of dietary fiber. Applying sourdoughs—with specific FODMAP-targeting metabolic properties—to wholegrain bread making can help to remarkably reduce the content of FODMAPs in bread without affecting the content of the slowly fermented and well-tolerated dietary fiber. In this review, we outline the metabolism of FODMAPs in conventional sourdoughs and outline concepts related to fructan and mannitol metabolism that allow development of low FODMAP sourdough bread. We also summarize clinical studies where low FODMAP but high fiber, rye sourdough bread was tested for its effects on gut fermentation and gastrointestinal symptoms with very promising results. The sourdough bread-making process offers a means to develop natural and fiber-rich low FODMAP bakery products for IBS patients and thereby help them to increase their dietary fiber intake. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Recent Advances in Physical Post-Harvest Treatments for Shelf-Life Extension of Cereal Crops
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
As a result of the rapidly growing global population and limited agricultural area, sufficient supply of cereals for food and animal feed has become increasingly challenging. Consequently, it is essential to reduce pre- and post-harvest crop losses. Extensive research, featuring several physical treatments,
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As a result of the rapidly growing global population and limited agricultural area, sufficient supply of cereals for food and animal feed has become increasingly challenging. Consequently, it is essential to reduce pre- and post-harvest crop losses. Extensive research, featuring several physical treatments, has been conducted to improve cereal post-harvest preservation, leading to increased food safety and sustainability. Various pests can lead to post-harvest losses and grain quality deterioration. Microbial spoilage due to filamentous fungi and bacteria is one of the main reasons for post-harvest crop losses and mycotoxins can induce additional consumer health hazards. In particular, physical treatments have gained popularity making chemical additives unnecessary. Therefore, this review focuses on recent advances in physical treatments with potential applications for microbial post-harvest decontamination of cereals. The treatments discussed in this article were evaluated for their ability to inhibit spoilage microorganisms and degrade mycotoxins without compromising the grain quality. All treatments evaluated in this review have the potential to inhibit grain spoilage microorganisms. However, each method has some drawbacks, making industrial application difficult. Even under optimal processing conditions, it is unlikely that cereals can be decontaminated of all naturally occurring spoilage organisms with a single treatment. Therefore, future research should aim for the development of a combination of treatments to harness their synergistic properties and avoid grain quality deterioration. For the degradation of mycotoxins the same conclusion can be drawn. In addition, future research must investigate the fate of degraded toxins, to assess the toxicity of their respective degradation products. Full article
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