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Foods 2017, 6(11), 95; doi:10.3390/foods6110095

The Content of Tocols in South African Wheat; Impact on Nutritional Benefits

1
Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
2
Department of Plant Breeding, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 101, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden
3
Small Grains Institute, Bethlehem 9700, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grain-based Foods: Processing, Properties, and Heath Attributes)
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Abstract

Wheat is a major component within human consumption, and due to the large intake of wheat, it has an impact on human nutritional health. This study aimed at an increased understanding of how the content and composition of tocols may be governed for increased nutritional benefit of wheat consumption. Therefore, ten South African wheat cultivars from three locations were fractionated into white and whole flour, the content and concentration of tocols were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and vitamin E activity was determined. The content and composition of tocols and vitamin E activity differed with fractionation, genotype, environment, and their interaction. The highest tocol content (59.8 mg kg−1) was obtained in whole flour for the cultivar Elands grown in Ladybrand, while whole Caledon flour from Clarence resulted in the highest vitamin E activity (16.3 mg kg−1). The lowest vitamin E activity (1.9 mg kg−1) was found in the cultivar C1PAN3118 from Ladybrand. High values of tocotrienols were obtained in whole flour of the cultivars Caledon (30.5 mg kg−1 in Clarens), Elands (35.5 mg kg−1 in Ladybrand), and Limpopo (33.7 mg kg−1 in Bultfontein). The highest tocotrienol to tocopherol ratio was found in white flour (2.83) due to higher reduction of tocotrienols than of tocopherols at fractionation. The quantity and composition of tocols can be governed in wheat flour, primarily by the selection of fractionation method at flour production, but also complemented by selection of genetic material and the growing environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Triticum aestivum; tocopherol; tocotrienol; vitamin E; genotype; environment Triticum aestivum; tocopherol; tocotrienol; vitamin E; genotype; environment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Labuschagne, M.; Mkhatywa, N.; Johansson, E.; Wentzel, B.; van Biljon, A. The Content of Tocols in South African Wheat; Impact on Nutritional Benefits. Foods 2017, 6, 95.

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